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Modeling Disposition of Sotalol following Intravenous and Oral Administration in Healthy Adult Subjects
S. Ray Chaudhuri, V. Lukacova and W. S. Woltosz

Sotalol is a non specific adrenergic beta-antagonist that is used in the treatment of life-threatening arrhythmia. Its absorption, distribution and systemic PK or, collectively, ‘disposition’ was modeled and simulated using GastroPlus™ v7.0. Biopharmaceutical properties were obtained from in silico predictions and in vitro measurements.

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Predicting hERG Potassium Channel Affinity with Artificial Neural Network Ensembles
Adam C. Lee, GrazynaFraczkiewicz, Robert Fraczkiewicz, Robert D. Clark and Walter S. Woltosz

Modeling hERG inhibition has gained significant popularity since 2005, when the FDA recognized the correlation between hERG inhibition and a prolonged QT interval by issuing guidance for the evaluation of new non-antiarrythmic drugs against the hERG channel.Long QT syndrome or LQTS is a risk factor for ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death.

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Predicting Sites of Metabolism with Artificial Neural Network Ensembles
Marvin Waldman, Robert Fraczkiewicz, JinhuaZhang, Robert D. Clark and Walter S. Woltosz

Hepatic first-pass metabolism of many drugs and pro drugs plays a key role in their oral bioavailability. The human cytochrome P450 enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of most drugs. Knowledge of likely sites of metabolic attack in a drug molecule can aid in designing out unwanted metabolic liabilities early on in the drug discovery process, as well as in the design of pro drugs where metabolic transformation is desired.

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Be Careful What You Ask for: Challenges of Predicting Human Clearance for a Low Metabolic Turnover Compound, ELND006
Kevin Quinn, David Nakamura, Heather Zhang, Shawn Gauby, Colin Lorentzen, Erich Goldbach, Amanda Moore, Salman Khetani, Earvin Liang, John-Michael Sauer and George Tonn,

A study of in vitro clearance of ELND006, a low turn-over compound.

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Global Gene Expression Changes Induced In Primary Human Hepatocytes By Thiazolidinediones Upon Repeat Dosing of HepatoPac™ Cultures
Michael McVay and Salman R. Khetani

An assessment of global gene expression changes in HepatoPac, a micropatterned co-culture of hepatocytes and stromal cells.

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A Long Term Culture Model for Primary Hepatocytes from Cynomolgus Monkeys
Simon Aoyama, Sara Lambirth, Chitra Kanchagar and Salman R. Khetani

The Macaca fascicularis or cynomolgus monkey is a non-human primate often used in pre-clinical animal studies. In this study, we applied microtechnology and tissue engineering techniques to cynomologus monkey hepatocytes in order to determine if these cells could be stabilized in micropatterned co-cultures similar to their human and rat counterparts.

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Live Cell Beating Assay Using Human iPSC-derived Cardiomyocytes for Evaluation of Drug Efficacy and Toxicity
Oksana Sirenko, Carole Crittenden, Blake Anson, Jayne Hesley, Yen-Wen Chen, Nick Callamaras and Evan F. Cromwell

A large percentage of new drugs fail in clinical studies due to cardiac toxicity. Development of highly predictive in vitro assays suitable for screening, safety assessment or other environments is therefore extremely important for drug development. Human cardiomyocytes derived from stem cell sources can greatly accelerate the discovery of cardiac drugs and improve drug safety by offering more clinically relevant cell-based models than those presently available.

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Quantification of cytokines on the SpectraMax® Paradigm® Multi-Mode Microplate Detection Platform using Alpha Technology
Caroline Cardonnel, Cathleen Salomo, Michael Katzlinger, Yvonne Fitzgerald, Cathy Olsen and Harald Hundsberger

Inflammation is accompanied by increased endothelial chemokine production and adhesion molecule expression, which may result in an extensive neutrophil infiltration. As such, the search for novel anti-inflammatory substances able to downregulate these parameters, as well as tissue damage, holds therapeutic promise.

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GALAS Modeling Methodology Applications In The Prediction Of Drug Metabolism Related Properties
Remigijus Didziapetris, Justas Dapkunas, Andrius Sazonovas and Pranas Japertas

Analytical identification of metabolites for a drug candidate is usually a time consuming and low-throughput task and is performed only at the later phases of drug development. Therefore the possibility to predict possible sites of human liver microsomal (HLM) metabolism using in silico techniques would be a very attractive feature for any medicinal chemist.

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Scientific News
The Rise of 3D Cell Culture and in vitro Model Systems for Drug Discovery and Toxicology
An overview of the current technology and the challenges and benefits over 2D cell culture models plus some of the latest advances relating to human health research.
Alzheimer’s Protein Serves as Natural Antibiotic
Alzheimer's-associated amyloid plaques may be part of natural process to trap microbes, findings suggest new therapeutic strategies.
Vitamin A May Help Improve Pancreatic Cancer Chemotherapy
The addition of high doses of a form of vitamin A could help make chemotherapy more successful in treating pancreatic cancer, according to an early study by Queen Mary University of London (QMUL).
Breakthrough Approach to Breast Cancer Treatment
Scripps scientists have designed a drug candidate that decreases growth of breast cancer cells.
Non-Toxic Approach to Treating Variety of Cancers
A team of researchers at Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine recently discovered a novel, non-toxic approach to treating a wide variety of cancers.
Making Injectable Medicine Safer
Researchers remove excess additives from drugs, which could reduce the odds of serious allergic reactions and other side effects.
An Old-New Weapon Against Emerging Chikungunya Virus
Researchers utilize existing drugs to interfere with host factors required for replication of Chikungunya virus.
Brazilian Zika Virus Strain Causes Birth Defects in Experimental Models
First direct experimental proof of causal effect, researchers say.
'Kidney on a Chip' Facilitates Safer Drug Dosing
University of Michigan researchers have used a "kidney on a chip" device to mimic the flow of medication through human kidneys and measure its effect on kidney cells.
Ketamine Metabolism Lifts Depression
NIH-funded team finds rapid-acting, non-addicting agent in mouse study.
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