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Metabolic Stability and Clearance of Pharmaceutical Chemicals in Pre-Pooled Cryopreserved Hepatocytes
Aruna Koganti, Nicola J. Hewitt, Wei Zhang, Michael Cheseborough, Christopher M. Terrell, Paul M. Silber and Charles B. Jensen

Cryopreserved hepatocytes express both phase I and phase II enzymes and facilitate early evaluation of the metabolic stability of pharmaceuticals. Availability of pre-pooled cryopreserved hepatocytes further enhances the utility of this model by reducing donor to donor variability. In this study, the metabolic stability of 29 pharmaceutical compounds were evaluated in pre-pooled cryopreserved human hepatocytes.

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CYP4F Enzymes are the Major Enzymes in Human Liver Microsomes that Catalyze the O-Demethylation of the Antiparasitic Prodrug DB289
Greg Loewen, Michael Zhuo Wang, Janelle Saulter, Etsuko Usuki, Yen-Ling Cheung, Michael Hall, Arlene Bridges, Oliver Parkinson, Chad Stephens, James Allen, Darryl Zeldin, David Boykin, Richard Tidwell, Mary Paine, James Hall and Andrew Parkinson

DB289 is a prodrug that is converted by several steps to the active metabolite DB75. DB289 exhibits enhanced oral efficacy and reduced acute toxicity over DB75, an aromatic dicationic compound that is effective against a broad range of pathogens in vitro including African trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness). This reaction phenotyping study aimed to identify the enzymes responsible for oxidative O-demethylation; the first step in this conversion to DB75.

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Effects of Gender, age and Ethnicity on Human Cytochrome P450 Activity
Lisa Collins, L. Anne Dwyer, Zell Woodworth, Tiffin Ramsey, Clayton Otwell, Chad Pope, Stephanie Helmstetter, Terry Graves, Josh Snyder, Jason Barricklow and Andrew Parkinson

The expression of CYP enzymes is influenced by both endogenous and exogenous factors. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate whether the age, gender, or ethnicity of the donor should influence the selection of human liver microsomes for drug metabolism studies, as well as whether cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are reliable indicators of elevated CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 activity, respectively.

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Alfentanil N-deakylation: Monitoring the Formation of N-phenylpropionamide (AMX) to Determine CYP3A4 Activity in Vitro
Phyllis Yerino, Paul Toren and Andrew Parkinson

Alfentanil is a synthetic analgesic cleared exclusively by hepatic metabolism. Due to the highly linear correlation between alfentanil systemic clearance and CYP3A4 activity, as well as the direct pharmacologic effects on pupil size, it has been used as a non-invasive metabolic probe for CYP3A4 activity in vivo. AMX is a direct metabolite of alfentanil, evaluated in this study for its potential to measure CYP3A4 activity in vitro.

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Kinetic Constants and Sample-to-Sample Variation in the Rate of Metabolism of two or more Substrates for Human Liver Microsomal CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4/5
Zell Woodworth, L. Anne Dwyer, Lisa Collins, Terry Graves, Stephanie Helmstetter, Brian Ogilvie, Clayton Otwell, Chad Pope, Tiffin Ramsey, Phyllis Yerino and Andrew Parkinson

Marker substrates for certain CYPs have changed for several reasons, including the need for improved selectivity and sensitivity, reliable substrates for LC/MS/MS analysis, and substrates that provide greater repeatability. The objectives of this study were to compare sample-to-sample variation in cytochrome P450 enzymatic rates between two or more CYP-specific substrates and to determine Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants for these same reactions using a pool of human liver microsomes.

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Spectrophotometric Determination of Terbinafine Hydrochloride in Bulk Drug and Pharmaceutical Formulation
Chaudhari V. P. Kulkarni M. S. Kuchekar B. S. and Chaudharik. P.

A simple, economical accurate and reproducible U.V. spectrophotometric method for the determination of Terbinafine Hydrochloride in both pure and pharmaceutical dosage form has been developed. Terbinafine Hydrochloride shows maximum absorbance at 223 nm with molar absorptivity of 9.378 x 103 lit/mole/cm. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 0.6-4.2 ug/ml. The results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies.

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High Throughput High Content Screening using a Multiwavelength Microplate Cytometer
Sarah Payne, Paul Wylie and Wayne Bowen

The Acumen eX3, a multiwavelength microplate cytometer, offers 405, 488 and 633 nm laser excitations in one instrument. This advancement significantly extends the range of fluorescent reagents that can be combined in multicolour, multiplexed assays over a wavelength range for excitation that is similar to that of white light source instrumentation. Thus, it permits seamless transfer of high content assay protocols, developed using CCD-based imaging devices, onto the Acumen eX3 for screening.

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An Ultra-High Throughput Approach to High Content Screening in 1536-Well Format
Yan Wang, Robert L. Davis and Wayne Bowen

The Acumen Explorer combines the object-recognition capabilities of image-based systems with read speeds similar to that of bulk readers. Here, we demonstrate the powerful integration of an Acumen Explorer with the Kalypsys® Integrated Screening System, with capability to screen > 300,000 wells per day of high content data.

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High Throughput Cell Cycle Analysis using Microplate Cytometry
Tristan Cope and Wayne Bowen

To improve screening efficiency, we have developed a cell cycle analysis method that uses an Acumen Explorer fluorescence microplate cytometer to measure the DNA content of propidium iodide stained fixed cells in microplates. We demonstrate that paclitaxel and vinblastine arrested CHO cells in the expected phase of the cell cycle.

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Showing Results 71 - 80 of 108
Scientific News
NIST Instrument Enables High-speed Chemical Imaging of Tissues
Researchers have demonstrated a dramatically improved technique for analyzing biological cells and tissues based on characteristic molecular vibration "signatures."
Finding Could Revolutionize Drug Discovery
A study by researchers at IRB Barcelona reveals the existence of information highways that connect and correlate distant sites within a single protein.
Researchers Develop ‘Onion’ Vesicles for Drug Delivery
University of Pennsylvania researchers have shown that dendrimer-based vesicles self-assemble with concentric layers of membranes, much like an onion.
Validation of Drug Toxicity Prediction using DiscoveRx Model
BioMAP® Systems was shown to identify important safety aspects of drugs and chemicals more efficiently and accurately than can be achieved by animal testing.
System 'Prints' Precise, Tailored Drug Dosages
The new approach uses a combination of data and mathematics to determine the precise dosage.
Mice and Rats Stressed by Male Experimenters
An international team of pain researchers led by scientists at McGill University have found that the gender of the experimenters has a big impact on the stress levels of rodents.
Skin Layer Grown in Lab Could Replace Animal Testing
Skin layer grown from human stem cells could replace animals in drug and cosmetics testing.
Observing Behavior of Single Molecules in Real Time
New technique developed by Stanford scientists allows observation of single molecules of protein or DNA as they bind with other molecules.
Development and Validation of LC/MS/MS Method and its Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study
Researchers aimed to develop a LC/MS/MS method to monitor plasma levels of montelukast, gliclazide, and nifedipine for application in pharmacokinetic studies and routine clinical practice.
Mini-Livers Show Promise to Reduce Animal Use in Science
Using this method, cells from one mouse could be used to test 1000 drug compounds to treat liver disease, and reduce animal use by up to 50,000.
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