Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
AgriGenomics
Scientific Community
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

Differences in the genomes of related plant pathogens

Published: Monday, August 20, 2012
Last Updated: Monday, August 20, 2012
Bookmark and Share
Even in closely-related species, life-style moulds the genetic make-up of pathogens and how their genes are used

 Many crop plants worldwide are attacked by a group of fungi that numbers more than 680 different species. After initial invasion, they first grow stealthily inside living plant cells, but then switch to a highly destructive life-style, feeding on dead cells. While some species switch completely to host destruction, others maintain stealthy and destructive modes simultaneously. A team of scientists led by Richard O'Connell from the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research in Cologne and Lisa Vaillancourt from University of Kentucky in Lexington have investigated the genetic basis for these two strategies. The researchers found that pathogen life-style has moulded the composition of these fungal genomes and determines when particular genes are switched on. They also discovered surprising new functions for fungal infection organs.

Colletotrichum fungi cause rots and leaf spot diseases which are spread by wind and rain splash. They cause devastating economic losses on food and biofuel crops running into billions of euros each year. While some species attack many different plants, others are highly selective and attack just one host plant. The two species investigated by O'Connell and his colleagues differ in their life-style and their host specificity. One species preferentially attacks crucifers, including thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana), a model plant important for biologists. Within just a few hours, this pathogen switches its metabolism towards the complete destruction of the plant cells. For this fungus, benign coexistence and massive destruction are separated in time. The other species studied is specifically adapted to maize. In one part of the plant it produces proteins to promote symptomless coexistence, while elsewhere it produces proteins to break-down and digest plant cells. In this case, the two life-styles are spatially separated.

The strength of this work, published in Nature Genetics, is that the researchers analysed both the genome and transcriptome of these two fungi. "The transcriptome reveals which genes are switched on and when. Several other fungal genomes have already been decoded, but never with such detailed information about if and when each gene is used during plant infection", says O'Connell. For example, both genomes have similar numbers of genes for hemicellulase enzymes, with which the plant cell wall is decomposed. However, the maize fungus switches on many more of these genes because the cell walls of maize contain more hemicellulose than do plants attacked by the Arabidopsis fungus. "This difference could not have been identified simply from cataloguing the numbers of such genes in the genome: transcriptome data are essential to obtain this information", explains O'Connell.



Further Information
Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 2,400+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More than 3,700+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

Powdery mildew at an evolutionary dead end
The plant pathogen powdery mildew forfeited a large part of its genetic complexity in the course of evolution. The considerable size of the mildew genome is largely due to so-called "jumping genes".
Friday, December 10, 2010
Scientific News
How a Kernel Got Naked and Corn Became King
Ten thousand years ago, a golden grain got naked, brought people together and grew to become one of the top agricultural commodities on the planet.
TOPLESS Plants Provide Clues to Human Molecular Interactions
Scientists at Van Andel Research Institute have revealed an important molecular mechanism in plants that has significant similarities to certain signaling mechanisms in humans, which are closely linked to early embryonic development and to diseases such as cancer.
New Technique for Mining Health-conferring Soy Compounds
A new procedure devised by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) scientists to extract lunasin from soybean seeds could expedite further studies of this peptide for its cancer-fighting potential and other health benefits.
Rice Disease-Resistance Discovery Closes the Loop for Scientific Integrity
Researchers reveal how disease resistant rice detects and responds to bacterial infections.
Pesticide Found in 70 Percent of Massachusetts’ Honey Samples
New Harvard University study says that the pesticide commonly found in honey samples is implicated in Colony Collapse Disorder.
Oxitec ‘Self-Limiting Gene’ Offers Hope for Controlling Invasive Moth
A new pesticide-free and environmentally-friendly way to control insect pests has moved ahead with the publication of results showing that Oxitec diamondback moths (DBM) with a ‘self-limiting gene’ can dramatically reduce populations of DBM.
More Rice, Less Greenhouse Gas?
An international group from China, Sweden and the U.S. has unveiled a genetically modified super rice that has more starch, yet releases a fraction of the harmful gas methane.
Kiwi Bird Genome Sequenced
The kiwi, national symbol of New Zealand, gives insights into the evolution of nocturnal animals.
Yeast Cells Use Signaling Pathway to Modify Their Genomes
Researchers at the Babraham Institute and Cambridge Systems Biology Centre, University of Cambridge have shown that yeast can modify their genomes to take advantage of an excess of calories in the environment and attain optimal growth.
Faster, Better, Cheaper: a New Method to Generate Extended Data for Genome Assemblies
The Genome Analysis Centre have developed a new library construction method for genome sequencing that can simultaneously construct up to 12 size-selected long mate pair (LMP) or ‘jump’ libraries ranging in sizes from 1.7kb to 18kb with reduced DNA input, time and cost.
Skyscraper Banner

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
2,400+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
3,700+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FREE!