Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Biologics & Bioprocessing
Scientific Community
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

Injected Vaccine Could Help Eradicate Polio

Published: Friday, July 11, 2014
Last Updated: Friday, July 11, 2014
Bookmark and Share
Re-introducing a type of polio vaccine that fell out of favour in the 1960s could hasten eradication of the disease.

Published in The Lancet, the study by Imperial College London and the Christian Medical College in Vellore, India, suggests that the injected polio vaccine (IPV), which is rarely used today in countries affected by polio, could provide better and longer lasting protection against infection if used in combination with the more commonly used live oral polio vaccine (OPV). 

Vaccination protects an individual against contracting polio, but they can still be infected by the virus, which replicates in the gut and can be passed to others through contact with infected faeces. This has led to serious polio outbreaks in Asia, Africa and Europe over the last 10 years and is hampering efforts to eradicate the disease. 

Most vaccination campaigns use multiple doses of OPV that provide some gut immunity, although this wanes over time.

"Because IPV is injected into the arm, rather than taken orally, it's been assumed it doesn't provide much protection in the gut and so would be less effective at preventing faecal transmission than OPV," explains Dr Jacob John, Associate Professor at the Christian Medical College, who led the study. "However, we found that where the children already had a level of immunity due to OPV, the injected vaccine actually boosted their gut immunity. 

"In the 1960s there was extensive rivalry between the scientists who developed the two vaccines, with OPV eventually becoming the most popular. But it looks as if the strongest immunity can been achieved through a combination of the two."

The study involved 450 children from a densely populated urban area in Vellore, India, all of whom had received the oral polio vaccine as part of a standard vaccination programme. Half of the children were given a dose of the injected vaccine and half given nothing. One month later, the children were given a 'challenge' dose of the live oral vaccine to simulate reinfection. 

Their stools were tested after seven days to see if the virus was present, specifically the two remaining serotypes of the virus which are resisting eradication - serotype 1 and serotype 3. In the children who had received the IPV, the researchers found that 38 per cent fewer had serotype 1 in their stool and 70 percent fewer had serotype 3, compared to those who had not been given the injected vaccine.

"Our findings show that an additional dose of the injected vaccine is more effective at boosting immunity against infection than the oral vaccine alone," says Nick Grassly, Professor of Vaccine Epidemiology at Imperial College London, senior author of the study. "This implies that the IPV could be used to boost immunity in people travelling from or to polio-infected countries, such as Afghanistan, Pakistan and Nigeria. It could also replace some of the OPV doses in immunisation campaigns to boost gut immunity, particularly in areas of poor sanitation."

In another study published this week in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Imperial researchers from the same group looked at whether expanding the age range of vaccination campaigns to include older children and adults would help to prevent polio transmission. Using a mathematical model to examine disease transmission in two major polio outbreaks in Tajikistan and the Republic of Congo in 2010, they found that older ages contributed significantly to transmission in Congo but not Tajikistan, which might be related to standards of sanitation and hygiene. However, launching mass immunisation campaigns more quickly in response to outbreaks would have a much bigger impact than expanding the age range, the study reported.

Lead author Dr Isobel Blake from the Medical Research Council Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling at Imperial College London said: "It can take over 70 days to send stool samples to the lab and get back a diagnosis of polio, which means by the time authorities discover an outbreak, many more people are already infected. These findings suggest that methods to detect outbreaks earlier would be hugely beneficial to eradication efforts."

The Lancet study was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The PNAS study was supported by a grant from the Polio Research Committee of the World Health Organization, the Royal Society, and Centre funding from the Medical Research Council.


Further Information

Join For Free

Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 3,100+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More than 4,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

New App Advises and Reminds Pregnant Women About Vaccinations
Researchers at Imperial College London have developed a new app to guide and remind pregnant women about vaccines recommended during pregnancy.
Saturday, March 12, 2016
Engineering Bacteria for Vaccine Delivery
An eight million Euro project has been launched with the aim of engineering bacteria to deliver vaccines against antibiotic-resistant infections.
Monday, May 18, 2015
Protein That Boosts Immunity To Viruses And Cancer Discovered
Scientists have discovered a protein that plays a central role in promoting immunity to viruses and cancer, opening the door to new therapies.
Friday, April 17, 2015
New Class of Antibodies Raises Hope of Dengue Fever Vaccine
Scientists have discovered a new class of human antibodies against the dengue fever virus, which could be exploited to develop a vaccine.
Tuesday, February 03, 2015
Scientists Closer to Universal Flu Vaccine After Pandemic “Natural Experiment”
The findings are published in Nature Medicine.
Friday, October 04, 2013
Researchers Pioneer Treatment for Viral Infection Common in Children
Professor Peter Openshaw and team develops a new technique used in tackling a wide range of other diseases.
Thursday, June 13, 2013
Bird Flu Mutation Study Offers Vaccine Clue
New findings to develop more effective vaccines against new strains of bird flu.
Tuesday, April 09, 2013
Scientists 'Disarm' HIV in Step Towards Vaccine
Sscientists at Imperial College London and Johns Hopkins University have shown that HIV is unable to damage the immune system if cholesterol is removed from the virus's membrane.
Wednesday, September 21, 2011
Arthritis Drugs Could Help Prevent Memory Loss After Surgery, Study Suggests
Anti-inflammatory drugs currently used to treat diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis may also help prevent cognitive problems after surgery, according to a new study by researchers at Imperial College London and University of California, San Francisco (UCSF).
Monday, November 01, 2010
Scientific News
Developing a More Precise Seasonal Flu Vaccine
During the 2014-15 flu season, the poor match between the virus used to make the world’s vaccine stocks and the circulating seasonal virus yielded a vaccine that was less than 20 percent effective.
Fighting Cancer with Borrowed Immunity
A new step in cancer immunotherapy: researchers from the Netherlands Cancer Institute and University of Oslo/Oslo University Hospital show that even if one's own immune cells cannot recognize and fight their tumors, someone else's immune cells might.
Modified Microalgae Converts Sunlight into Valuable Medicine
A special type of microalgae can soon produce valuable chemicals such as cancer treatment drugs and much more just by harnessing energy from the sun.
Immune Cells Remember Their First Meal
Scientists at the University of Bristol have identified the trigger for immune cells' inflammatory response – a discovery that may pave the way for new treatments for many human diseases.
Paper Filter Can Remove Viruses from Water
A new paper filter can purify water from viruses, even the most difficult and contagious.
Large-scale HIV Vaccine Trial to Launch in South Africa
NIH-funded study will test safety, efficacy of vaccine regimen.
New HIV Vaccine Target Discovered
NIH-Led team have discovered a new vaccine target site on HIV.
Mimicking Evolution to Create Novel Proteins
A study by researchers in the Kuhlman lab offers a new route to design the 'cellular machines' needed to understand and battle diseases.
Antibody Therapy Opens Door to Potential New Treatment for HIV
Researchers at Rockefeller University show how a broadly neutralizing antibody could be used to help fight HIV.
Investigational Malaria Vaccine Protects Healthy U.S. Adults
Researchers at NIH have found that the malaria vaccine protected a small number of healthy, malaria-naïve adults in the U.S. from infection for more than one year after immunization.
SELECTBIO

SELECTBIO Market Reports
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
3,100+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
4,500+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FOR FREE!