Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Scientific Community
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article

Derivatization in Liquid Chromatography for Mass Spectrometric Detection

Published: Thursday, March 28, 2013
Last Updated: Wednesday, March 27, 2013
Bookmark and Share
This review presents an overview of the derivatization reagents in LC/ESI-MS/MS that have been applied to the low molecular weight compounds over the past five years.

Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) has been frequently utilized for the sensitive and selective determination of the trace level compounds in biological samples. In particular, LC/MS/MS equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) as the ion source is most often used method, since ESI can ionize wide range of the compounds including the polar compounds or large molecular weight compounds. Furthermore, ESI requires lower temperature for ionization compared with other ionization methods such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), and thus it can be used for the thermally unstable compounds. In LC/ESI-MS/MS, the analytes having the following properties can be sensitively detected. Firstly, the analytes must be ionic or ionizable forms in the solution phase, since, in the ESI, gas phase ions are mainly generated by transferring the ions in solution into gas phase in the presence of a strong electrical field. Secondly, it is preferable for the analytes to have the appropriate hydrophobic structures, since (i) the hydrophobic ions prefer to reside at the droplet surface generated by electrospray and these ions enter the gas phase more readily than those in the droplet interior and show the higher signal intensities. (ii) The hydrophobic compounds can be well separated on the reversed phase column from salts and interfering compounds possessing suppression effects on ESI. (iii) The hydrophobic compounds are eluted by the mobile phase with the higher organic solvent content. The higher organic solvent content is suitable for the stable generation of charged droplets by electrospray and thus gives the higher signal intensities. Thirdly, it is desired for the analytes to have the suitable structure for MS/MS detection (selected reaction monitoring (SRM)), i.e., to fragment efficiently upon collision induced dissociation (CID) and generate an intense and particular product ion. However, not all the compounds can be favorably analyzed by LC/ESI-MS/MS. Thus, chemical derivatization of the analyte is often used to enhance the detection sensitivity. So far, a number of derivatization reagents for LC/ MS/MS have been reported and they are summarized in several review papers. 

The article is published online in the journal Drug Discoveries & Therapeutics and is free to access.

Further Information
Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 2,600+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More than 3,800+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters

Sign In

Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

Metabolomics Data Normalization with EigenMS
In this study, a singular value decomposition-based method, called EigenMS, for normalization of metabolomics data was tested.
Wednesday, January 07, 2015
Bridging Quantitative Analysis and Untargeted Metabolomics
Untargeted metabolomics has become a popular tool in metabolite biomarker discovery and in the evaluation of metabolic pathway changes associated with disease.
Thursday, December 04, 2014
Proteomics for Systems Toxicology
MS-based proteomics is maturing into a robust technology for the measurement of proteome-wide exposure effects.
Monday, November 24, 2014
Single-Step Isolation of Extracellular Vesicles by SEC
Researchers from the University of Amsterdam have developed a single-step protocol to isolate vesicles from human body fluids.
Thursday, October 16, 2014
Comparison of Caffeinated and Decaffeinated Coffee - Implications for Alzheimer's Disease
Researchers from the National University of Singapore successfully demonstrated the viability of GC-TOF-MS as an analytical platform for metabolomics analysis of coffee samples.
Monday, September 08, 2014
RP HPLC Retention Behaviours in Carotenoids Analysis
The efficiency of the separation process in reversed-phase HPLC is highly dependent on the binary hydro-organic mobile phase composition and surface properties of the packing material.
Thursday, August 14, 2014
Identification of Psoriatic Arthritis Mediators in Synovial Fluid
This study represents the most comprehensive proteomic analysis of psoriatic arthritis synovial fluid, to date.
Friday, August 08, 2014
Simultaneous Determination of Six Flame Retardants in Water
The work aimed to develop an analytical procedure for the extraction and simultaneous determination of selected flame retardants.
Thursday, July 24, 2014
Assessing Anticancer Drugs Efficacy by Amino Acid Metabolomics
Researchers aimed to develop a method that determines the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs based on the changes in amino acid metabolism at the cellular level.
Thursday, July 17, 2014
UHPLC: The Greening Face of Liquid Chromatography
Greening pathways for liquid chromatography is especially significant for drug analysis in the pharmaceutical matrix.
Thursday, June 26, 2014
Evaluating Acute Hydrogen Sulfide Poisoning in Rats through Serum Metabolomics
Through the use of GC/MS-based metabolomics, researchers have evaluated the effect of acute hydrogen sulfide poisoning on the metabolic profiles of rats.
Thursday, June 12, 2014
Separation of mAbs Molecular Variants by Analytical HIC-HPLC
HIC-HPLC is a less widely used analytical technique compared with standard methods for separating variants based on size, charge or electrophoretic mobility.
Thursday, June 05, 2014
Simultaneous Determination of Free Urinary Steroids
Researchers have described an LC–MS/MS method that accurate, precise and is in accordance with FDA guidelines.
Thursday, June 05, 2014
Moment Analysis of Chromatographic Behavior of Separation Media for Fast HPLC
Chromatographic behavior in RPLC using the C18-silica monolith and C18-core-shell particles was analyzed by the two equations from the kinetic points of view.
Friday, May 30, 2014
Comparison of Pesticide Residues in Surface and Ground Water
Measurement of pesticide residues can be used as baseline levels to monitor the future changes and to predict their future impact on the population of the area.
Thursday, May 15, 2014
Scientific News
Metabolomic Platform Reveals Fundamental Flaw in Common Lab Technology
A new study led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) shows that a technology used in thousands of laboratories, called gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), fundamentally alters the samples it analyzes.
First Complete Structural Study Of A Pegylated Protein
Significant data obtained at NUI Galway reports first crystal structure of a protein modified with a single PEG chain.
Evidence of Ancient Life Discovered Deep Below the Seafloor
Ancient rocks harbored microbial life deep below the seafloor, reports a team of scientists from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Virginia Tech, and the University of Bremen.
Investigating the Vape
Expert independent review concludes that e-cigarettes have potential to help smokers quit.
Oceanographers Solve Mystery of Beach Explosion
Scientists at the University of Rhode Island have solved the mystery of what caused an explosion at Salty Brine State Beach in Narrangansett.
New ACE-inhibiting Molecule Found in the Asparagus
Scientists have determined that sulfur-containing compounds in plants can inhibit ACE.
Researchers Pioneer Use of Capsules to Save Materials
Wax capsule delivery systems can simplify a wide range of chemistry transformations.
New Test Could Distinguish Between Bipolar Disorder, Depression
Scientists are developing a test that could tell the difference between bipolar disorder and depression.
Was Shakespeare high?
State-of-the-art forensic technology from South Africa has been used to try and unravel the mystery of what was smoked in tobacco pipes found in the Stratford-upon-Avon garden of British playwright William Shakespeare.
Diabetes Can Cause Immune System Malfunction
Case Western Reserve scientists show how sugar-derived molecules can weaken infection-fighting antimicrobial beta-defensin peptides.

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
2,600+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
3,800+ scientific videos