Analytical method for the determination of six flame retardants (FRs) from two groups was proposed. These groups included the brominated flame retardants (BFRs) 3,3',5,5'-tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromophthalic anhydride (TBPA) and triester organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) tris(2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TBPP), ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPhP). Reversed phase ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with a UV detector, different chromatographic columns, different mobile phases and gradient elution programmes were used to obtain the best separations within the shortest possible time. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was examined as a pre-concentration step from distilled water. The column with the highest recoveries (the Bond Elut ENV column gave recoveries over 70 % for all compounds) was then tested on 1-L blank surface water samples. The proposed analytical procedure was applied for the determination of FRs in surface water samples. The concentrations of FRs found in water samples ranged from 0.03 (TPhP) to 3.10 μg L-1 (HBCD). Method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.008 to 0.518 μg L-1, and method quantification limits (MQLs) ranged from 0.023 to 1.555 μg L-1 for all compounds.
The article, "The Simultaneous Determination of Six Flame Retardants in Water Samples Using SPE Pre-concentration and UHPLC-UV Method" is published online in Water, Air and Soil Pollution and is free to access.