Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Genomics
Scientific Community
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

JCVI Researchers Clone and Engineer Bacterial Genomes in Yeast and Transplant Genomes Back into Bacterial Cells

Published: Friday, August 21, 2009
Last Updated: Friday, August 21, 2009
Bookmark and Share
New methods allow for engineering of bacterial chromosomes and the creation of modified bacterial species; should also play key role in boot up of synthetic cell.

Researchers at the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI), a not-for-profit genomic research organization, published results today describing new methods in which the entire bacterial genome from Mycoplasma mycoides was cloned in a yeast cell by adding yeast centromeric plasmid sequence to the bacterial chromosome and modified it in yeast using yeast genetic systems.

This modified bacterial chromosome was then isolated from yeast and transplanted into a related species of bacteria, Mycoplasma capricolum, to create a new type of M. mycoides cell. This is the first time that genomes have been transferred between branches of life-from a prokaryote to eukaryote and back to a prokaryote. The research was published by Carole Lartigue et al in Science Express.

Hamilton Smith, M.D., one of the leaders of the JCVI team said, “I believe this work has important implications in better understanding the fundamentals of biology to enable the final stages of our work in creating and booting up a synthetic genome. This is possibly one of the most important new findings in the field of synthetic genomics.”

The research published was made possible by previous breakthroughs at JCVI. In 2007 the team published results from the transplantation of the native M. mycoides genome into the M. capricolum cell which resulted in the M. capricolum cell being transformed into M. mycoides. This work established the notion that DNA is the software of life and that it is the DNA that dictates the cell phenotype.

In 2008 the same team reported on the construction of the first synthetic bacterial genome by assembling DNA fragments made from the four chemicals of life-ACGT. The final assembly of DNA fragments into the whole genome was performed in yeast by making use of the yeast genetic systems. However, when the team attempted to transplant the synthetic bacterial genome out of yeast into a recipient bacterial cell, all the experiments failed.

The researchers had previously established that no proteins were required for chromosome transplantations, however they reasoned that DNA methylation might be required for transplantation. When the chromosome was isolated direct from the bacterial cells it was likely already methylated and therefore transplantable due to it being protected from the cells restriction enzymes.

In this study, the team began by cloning the native M. mycoides genomeinto yeast by adding a yeast centromere to the bacterial genome. This is the first time a native bacterial genome has been grown successfully in yeast. Specific methylase enzymes were isolated from M. mycoides and used to methylate the M. mycoides genome isolated from yeast. When the DNA was methylated the chromosome was able to be successfully transplanted into a wild type species of M. capricolum. However, if the DNA was not first methylated the transplant experiments were not successful.

To prove that the restriction enzymes in the M. capricolum cell were responsible for the destruction of the transplanted genome the team removed the restriction enzyme genes from the M. capricolum genome. When genome transplantations were performed using the restriction enzyme minus recipient cells, all the genome transplantations worked regardless of if the DNA was methylated or not.

“The ability to modify bacterial genomes in yeast is an important advance that extends yeast genetic tools to bacteria.  If this is extendable to other bacteria we believe that these methods may be used in general laboratory practice to modify organisms,” said Sanjay Vashee, Ph.D., JCVI researcher and corresponding author on the paper.

The team now has a complete cycle of cloning a bacterial genome in yeast, modifying the bacterial genome as though it were a yeast chromosome and transplanting the genome back into a recipient bacterial cell to create a new bacterial strain. These new methods and knowledge should allow the team to now transplant and boot up the synthetic bacterial genome successfully.


Further Information

Join For Free

Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 4,000+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More than 5,300+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

First Minimal Synthetic Bacterial Cell
Researchers at JCVI and SGI have designed and constructed of the first minimal synthetic bacterial cell, JCVI-syn3.0.
Tuesday, March 29, 2016
JCVI Awarded 5 Year, Approximately $25 Million NIH Grant to Establish GCID
Center will utilize next generation genomic sequencing and analysis technologies to better understand infectious disease pathogens, and create resource for the research community.
Saturday, June 07, 2014
137 Marine Microbial Genomes from Cultured Samples are Sequenced
Research gives clearer picture of inhabitants living in ocean surface and gleans insights into how they adapt and survive.
Thursday, November 18, 2010
Castor Bean Genome Published by Research Team Including Scientists from the Venter Institute
A research team published the sequence and analysis of the castor bean genome in Nature Biotechnology.
Wednesday, August 25, 2010
Venter Institute Scientists Sequence 178 Microbial Reference Genomes Associated with the Human Body
Consortium members of the NIH's Human Microbiome project finds greater microbial diversity in human microbiome than previously known.
Friday, May 28, 2010
J. Craig Venter Institute Researchers Publish Significant Advance in Genome Assembly Technology
Researchers publish paper describing a significant advance in genome assembly in which the team can now assemble the whole bacterial genome in one step.
Monday, December 08, 2008
First Individual Diploid Human Genome Published by Researchers at J. Craig Venter Institute
Sequence reveals that human to human variation is substantially greater than earlier estimates.
Thursday, September 06, 2007
JCVI Scientists Publish First Bacterial Genome Transplantation Changing One Species to Another
Research is important step in further advancing field of synthetic genomics
Thursday, June 28, 2007
J. Craig Venter Institute Announces Management Team and Organizational Structure
The Institute will no longer be organized under the two research divisions TIGR and TCAG, but will now encompass an administrative team and several research groups.
Friday, April 13, 2007
CEO of a Newly Expanded J. Craig Venter Institute to Speak at SEQNSYNTECH
Craig Venter became president and CEO of a newly expanded J. Craig Venter Institute after it absorbed the Institute for Genomic Research and the J. Craig Venter Science Foundation.
Monday, October 16, 2006
Scientific News
Big Genetics in BC: The American Society for Human Genetics 2016 Meeting
Themes at this year's meeting ranged from the verification, validation, and sharing of data, to the translation of laboratory findings into actionable clinical results.
Cancer Genetics: Key to Diagnosis, Therapy
When applied judiciously, cancer genetics directs caregivers to the right drug at the right time, while sparing patients of unnecessary or harmful treatments.
Unexpected Epigenetic Enzymes Role in Cancer
Researchers use epigenetics to identify the role of an enzyme family as regulators of genetic message interpretation in yeast.
New Form of Autism Found
An international team of researchers have identified a new form of syndromic autism.
Tissue Damage Is Key for Cell Reprogramming
Researchers have shown tissue damage is important for cells to return to an embryonic state for cell reprogramming.
Improving Drug Production with Computer Model
A model has been developed that can be used to improve and accelerate the production of biotherapeutics, cancer drugs, and vaccines.
Accelerating the Detection of Foodborne Bacterial Outbreaks
The speed of diagnosis of foodborne bacterial outbreaks could be improved by a new technique developed by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
Scientists Identify Unique Genomic Features in Testicular Cancer
The findings may shed light on factors in other cancers that influence their sensitivity to chemotherapy.
Top 10 Life Science Innovations of 2016
2016 has seen the release of some truly innovative products. To help you digest these developments, The Scientist have listed their top picks for the year.
Secret Phenotypes: Disease Devils in Invisible Details
Algorithmic deep phenotyping exposes masses of hidden traits and possible subtle genetic connections relevant to unseen influences on disease.
Skyscraper Banner

SELECTBIO Market Reports
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
4,000+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
5,300+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FOR FREE!