Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Genomics
Scientific Community
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

Newly Found Enzymes may Play Early Role in Cancer

Published: Tuesday, December 30, 2008
Last Updated: Tuesday, December 30, 2008
Bookmark and Share
The manipulation of these newly found genes might lead to targeted therapies aimed at slowing or preventing the onset of tumors.

Researchers have discovered two enzymes that, when combined, could be involved in the earliest stages of cancer. Manipulating these enzymes genetically might lead to targeted therapies aimed at slowing or preventing the onset of tumors.

"We could conceivably reactivate a completely normal gene in a tumor cell - a gene that could prevent the growth of a tumor if reactivated," says David Jones, Ph.D., professor of oncological sciences at the University of Utah and senior director of early translational research at the university's Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI).

"We believe this could be one of the earliest processes to go wrong in cancer," he adds. By manipulating these enzymes, we could possibly prevent or slow the onset of tumors."

The enzymes appear to control an "on-and-off switch" for critical genes that could trigger cancer or numerous other diseases and birth defects. The research is published in the December 26 issue of Cell.

Using zebrafish that share similar genetics to humans, the HCI scientists identified a previously unknown enzyme process that controls the levels of DNA methylation on genes.

"Methylation is a cellular process that is required for healthy cell growth and development, but it can go awry in cancer and diseased cells," says Brad Cairns, Ph.D., HCI investigator and professor of oncological sciences at the University of Utah. "You can think of DNA methylation as an on-and-off switch. Methylation silences or ‘shuts off' genes that need to be turned off or are not functioning as they should, whereas the reverse process called demethylation ‘turns on' healthy genes and genes needed at critical times in development," he says.

In cancer, this methylation process goes haywire, leading to tumor growth. Genes that should be "turned on" are not and vice versa.

The significance of this research is the discovery of two enzymes involved in DNA demethylation.  Defects in DNA methylation balance are strongly associated with the early development of cancer, other diseases and birth defects, and the scientists say their study is the first clear evidence that this enzyme system plays a critical role in maintaining this balance. They also believe it's a process that can be reversed.

Further research will reveal if DNA methylation levels can be manipulated genetically. If so, it could lead to drugs to reactivate particular genes and suppress tumor growth. Remarkably, this system also helps protect the genome from mutations.

"We discovered a pair of enzymes that can remove methylated DNA, but if these enzymes work improperly, they will instead enhance the rate of mutations in methylated DNA and cause cancer progression," says Jones. "The question now is, when they work improperly, can we find ways to shut them off and prevent these mutations?"

The enzymes leading to DNA demethylation involve the coupling of a 5-meC deaminase enzyme, a G:T glycosylase enzyme and Gadd45, which is not an enzyme.


Further Information
Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 2,500+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More than 3,700+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

Genetic Tug of War
Researchers have reported on a version of genetic parental control in mice that is more targeted, and subtle than canonical imprinting.
Monday, August 03, 2015
First Evidence of Virus in Cancerous Prostate Cells
A type of virus that causes leukemia and sarcomas in animals has been found for the first time in malignant human prostate cancer cells.
Tuesday, September 08, 2009
Sperm’s Genes Packaged with Instructions for Development
New research shows that a father’s sperm passes along a previously unrecognized set of instructions that helps guide the early development of his children.
Wednesday, June 17, 2009
Utah Researchers Confirm Chromosome may Harbor Autism Gene
Researchers have ruled out one gene that appeared to be a good candidate for being linked to autism.
Wednesday, January 18, 2006
Scientific News
Poor Survival Rates in Leukemia Linked to Persistent Genetic Mutations
For patients with an often-deadly form of leukemia, new research suggests that lingering cancer-related mutations – detected after initial treatment with chemotherapy – are associated with an increased risk of relapse and poor survival.
Searching Big Data Faster
Theoretical analysis could expand applications of accelerated searching in biology, other fields.
Growing Hepatitis C in the Lab
Recent discovery allows study of naturally occurring forms of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the lab.
Inciting an Immune Attack on Cancer Cells
A new minimally invasive vaccine that combines cancer cells and immune-enhancing factors could be used clinically to launch a destructive attack on tumors.
Reprogramming Cancer Cells
Researchers on Mayo Clinic’s Florida campus have discovered a way to potentially reprogram cancer cells back to normalcy.
Genetic Overlapping in Multiple Autoimmune Diseases May Suggest Common Therapies
CHOP genomics expert leads analysis of genetic architecture, with eye on repurposing existing drugs.
Surprising Mechanism Behind Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Uncovered
Now, scientists at TSRI have discovered that the important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, develops resistance to this drug by “switching on” a previously uncharacterized set of genes.
How DNA ‘Proofreader’ Proteins Pick and Edit Their Reading Material
Researchers from North Carolina State University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have discovered how two important proofreader proteins know where to look for errors during DNA replication and how they work together to signal the body’s repair mechanism.
Fat in the Family?
Study could lead to therapeutics that boost metabolism.
Tissue Bank Pays Dividends for Brain Cancer Research
Checking what’s in the bank – the Brisbane Breast Bank, that is – has paid dividends for UQ cancer researchers.
Skyscraper Banner

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
2,500+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
3,700+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FREE!