Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Biomolecular Screening
Scientific Community
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

New Biochip Holds Great Promise for Quickly Triaging People After Radiation Exposure

Published: Friday, August 16, 2013
Last Updated: Friday, August 16, 2013
Bookmark and Share
Chip could lead to a much-needed way to quickly triage people after possible radiation exposure.

He led the multi-institutional team that developed the panel of radiation-sensitive blood proteins.

“The goal is to give medical personnel a way to identify people who require immediate care. They also need to identify the expected much larger number of people who receive a dose that doesn’t require medical attention,” Wyrobek adds.

Currently, the most common way to measure radiation exposure is a blood assay called dicentric chromosome assay that tracks chromosomal changes after exposure. Another approach is to watch for the onset of physical symptoms. But these methods take several days to provide results, which is far too late to identify people who’d benefit from immediate treatment.

The new, much faster method comes about thanks to a collaboration between scientists from radiation biology, biostatistics, and engineering disciplines.

Over the past several years, Wyrobek and colleagues in Berkeley Lab’s Life Sciences Division have explored the biochemical signatures of radiation dose. They’ve identified more than 250 proteins that change after exposure. These proteins can serve as biomarkers that indicate whether a person has been exposed to radiation, and by how much. What’s been lacking is a platform that puts these biomarkers to use.

Meanwhile, in the laboratory of Stanford University’s Shan Wang, researchers have pioneered the use of magnetic nanoparticles and giant magnetoresistive sensors for bio-detection. These sensors are coated with molecules that are designed to capture other “target molecules.” The sensors produce electrical signals when the target molecule, followed by a magnetic nanoparticle, attach to it. In this way, a person can detect the presence of nanoscale objects such as proteins — even though the objects are invisible to the naked eye.

The two groups began working together a couple of years ago. Wyrobek’s team supplied antibodies for two protein biomarkers of radiation exposure. Wang’s team incorporated these antibodies into magneto-nanosensors. They also created a smaller-than-a-penny-sized chip with 64 of these sensors. A shoebox-sized chip reader connects the chip to an electronic circuit board. The chip reader can be linked to a laptop or smartphone for easy readout.

They tested the system using blood from mice that had been exposed to radiation. Here’s how it works: A drop of blood is placed on the chip. The biomarker proteins in the blood attach themselves to an antibody on one of the chip’s 64 magneto-nanosensors. A second step adds detection antibodies and magnetic nanoparticles to each “captured” protein. The sensors recognize the nanoparticles’ presence, and send electronic signals to the circuit board that indicate the number of proteins present.

“You add a drop of blood, wait a few minutes, and get results,” says Wyrobek.

Their proof of principle test matched results obtained via a widely used molecule-detection test called an ELISA assay. It also worked up to seven days after exposure.

“It’s very satisfying to see that the assay, based on magneto-nanosensors, has validated the radiation dose response of the protein markers identified by the Berkeley Lab team,” says Wang.

The scientists next hope to add antibodies for additional proteins to the chip so it can detect the presence of even more biomarkers.

The research was funded primarily by the Department of Health and Human Services’ Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority.


Further Information
Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 2,500+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More than 3,700+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

Unravelling the Mysteries of Carbonic Acid
Researchers have shown how gaseous carbon dioxide molecules are solvated by water to initiate the proton transfer chemistry that produces carbonic acid and bicarbonate.
Thursday, June 18, 2015
Scientific News
Promising Class of New Cancer Drugs Cause Memory Loss in Mice
New findings from The Rockefeller University suggest that the original version of BET inhibitors causes molecular changes in mouse neurons, and can lead to memory loss in mice that receive it.
Electrical Control of Cancer Cells
Research led by scientists at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) has revealed a new electrical mechanism that can control these switches.
Signature of Microbiomes Linked to Schizophrenia
Studying microbiomes in throat may help identify causes and treatments of brain disorder.
Inflammation Linked to Colon Cancer Metastasis
A new Arizona State University research study led by Biodesign Institute executive director Raymond DuBois has identified for the first time the details of how inflammation triggers colon cancer cells to spread to other organs, or metastasize.
Structural Discoveries Could Aid in Better Drug Design
Scientists have uncovered the structural details of how some proteins interact to turn two different signals into a single integrated output.
Determining the Age of Fingerprints
Watch the imprint of a tire track in soft mud, and it will slowly blur, the ridges of the pattern gradually flowing into the valleys. Researchers have tested the theory that a similar effect could be used to give forensic scientists a way to date fingerprints.
Genetic Overlapping in Multiple Autoimmune Diseases May Suggest Common Therapies
CHOP genomics expert leads analysis of genetic architecture, with eye on repurposing existing drugs.
Surprising Mechanism Behind Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria Uncovered
Now, scientists at TSRI have discovered that the important human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, develops resistance to this drug by “switching on” a previously uncharacterized set of genes.
Tissue Bank Pays Dividends for Brain Cancer Research
Checking what’s in the bank – the Brisbane Breast Bank, that is – has paid dividends for UQ cancer researchers.
Researchers Publish Landmark “Basket Study”
Researchers from Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK) have announced results from the first published basket study, a new form of clinical trial design that explores responses to drugs based on the specific mutations in patients’ tumors rather than where their cancer originated.
SELECTBIO

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
2,500+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
3,700+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FREE!