Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Immunology
Scientific Community
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

Inflammation Drives Crohn's Disease, Says Study

Published: Tuesday, August 21, 2012
Last Updated: Tuesday, August 21, 2012
Bookmark and Share
Recent studies show marked changes in the composition of the intestinal bacteria in people with CD.

Inflammation - not genetic susceptibility - drives the growth of intestinal bacteria and invasive E. coli linked to Crohn's disease (CD), reports a new Cornell study.

Scientists have long wondered about the role of bacteria in CD. Recent studies have shown marked changes in the composition of the intestinal bacteria in people with CD, leading researchers to ask: Are microbial abnormalities a direct consequence of genetic abnormalities linked to Crohn's and precede and initiate inflammation, or does intestinal inflammation bring on the bugs?

Inflammation, in fact, drives microbial imbalances (dysbiosis) and the proliferation of a specific type of E. coli that is adherent, invasive and found in the ileum, reported Cornell researchers July 31 in PLoS (7[7]).

And genetics, they said, do play a role in determining the threshold and magnitude of dysbiosis in response to acute inflammation induced by environmental triggers.

This study also reports that a common therapy directed against intestinal inflammation decreases dysbiosis.

In addition, the study found that the lack of a receptor that helps recruit T cells, which are needed for cell-mediated immunity, to the gut also decreases inflammation and dysbiosis, offering a new option for therapeutic intervention.

"Today, remission is our mission," said Kenneth Simpson, professor of small animal medicine at Cornell's College of Veterinary Medicine and principal investigator.

Simpson continued, "Crohn's disease is a highly complex condition that finds its strength in the combination of negatives: environmental factors, genetic mutations and immune system malfunctions. Ultimately, there may be a cure. Until then, we need to find ways to relieve suffering."

CD is a chronic debilitating inflammatory bowel disease that involves a complex interaction of host genes, the immune system, the intestinal microbiome and the environment.

Afflicting more than half a million people in North America, CD can trigger mild to severe diarrhea, fever, fatigue, anemia, reduced appetite and weight loss.

To mirror the complex nature of the disease, Simpson's team designed a study that incorporated inflammatory triggers related to relapse of CD and ileal inflammation.

Unlike previous studies that have focused on colonic or fecal dysbiosis, the team focused on ileal dysbiosis, which is prevalent in 70 percent of CD cases.

Also novel to this study, the team used a variety of contemporary techniques to generate a comprehensive picture of the composition and spatial distribution of the ileal microbiome.

Particular attention was paid to pinpointing the number, pathotype and location of E. coli associated with intestinal inflammation in people, dogs and mice.

"Our findings clearly demonstrate that inflammation drives ileal dysbiosis and proliferation of CD-associated adherent invasive E. coli. Further, in the context of a patient with Crohn's, we found that the host genotype and therapeutically blocking inflammation both impact the onset and extent of ileal dysbiosis. These novel findings are of high relevance to Crohn's disease."

The investigation leveraged the knowledge and resources of researchers in the labs of Erik Denker, Dwight Bowman and Sean McDonough labs.

Building on findings in patients with Crohn's disease evaluated by Dr. Ellen Scherl's group at Weill Cornell Medical College, this collaboration shed new light on this debilitating disease.

"It appears that we harbor our own powder keg," said Simpson. "The bacteria are already seeded. It's what controls the relative balance between the different species of bacteria and their numbers, relative proportions, our ability to deal with them, and the cross-talk between the bacteria and host that is important."

This work was supported by NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, the Jill Roberts Center for Inflammatory Bowel Disease and the National Institutes of Health.


Further Information
Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 2,500+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More than 3,800+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

Synthetic Immune Organ Produces Antibodies
Cornell engineers have created a functional, synthetic immune organ that produces antibodies and can be controlled in the lab, completely separate from a living organism.
Friday, June 12, 2015
Expelled DNA that Traps Toxins May Backfire in Obese
The body’s most powerful immune cells may have a radical way of catching their prey that could backfire on people who are overweight.
Wednesday, June 19, 2013
TB Bacteria's Trash-Eating Inspires Search for New Drugs
When hijacking a garbage truck, one might as well make use of the trash. That logic drives how tuberculosis-causing bacteria feed, say Cornell scientists.
Tuesday, June 11, 2013
Discovery Could Revolutionize Immunization
Immune cells in newborns appear to be more ready to do battle than previously thought.
Monday, April 29, 2013
Immune Response Linked to Key Enzyme
A family of enzymes may contribute to scientists’ understanding of signaling molecules involved in the body’s immune response.
Friday, April 12, 2013
Bacteria Employ 'Quality-control' Machinery, say Biomolecular Engineers
Like quality-control managers in factories, bacteria possess built-in machinery that track the shape and quality of proteins trying to pass through their cytoplasmic membranes.
Friday, August 03, 2012
The Force is with us: GEDI Chip Sorts Prostate Cancer Cells
Geometrically Enhanced Differential Immunocapture chip identify and collect cancer cells from a patient's bloodstream.
Friday, June 29, 2012
Immune Cells Found to Counter Obesity-Related Diabetes
Activation of NKT cells reduces inflammation, and also reduces insulin resistance and increases glucose tolerance.
Monday, May 21, 2012
Scientific News
Health Risks of Saturated Fats Aggravated by Immune Response
Research shows that the presence of saturated fats resulted in monocytes migrating into the tissues of vital organs.
Inciting an Immune Attack On Cancer Cells
A new minimally invasive vaccine that combines cancer cells and immune-enhancing factors could be used clinically to launch a destructive attack on tumors.
Inciting an Immune Attack on Cancer Cells
A new minimally invasive vaccine that combines cancer cells and immune-enhancing factors could be used clinically to launch a destructive attack on tumors.
Inflammation Linked to Colon Cancer Metastasis
A new Arizona State University research study led by Biodesign Institute executive director Raymond DuBois has identified for the first time the details of how inflammation triggers colon cancer cells to spread to other organs, or metastasize.
New Strategy for Combating Adenoviruses
Using an animal model they developed, Saint Louis University and Utah State university researchers have identified a strategy that could keep a common group of viruses called adenoviruses from replicating and causing sickness in humans.
Major Advance Toward More Effective, Long-Lasting Flu Vaccine
Collaboration shows vaccine candidate can produce powerful ‘broadly neutralizing antibodies’ in animal models.
Immune System: Help for Killer Cells
A study from the University of Bonn may show the way to more effective vaccines.
Protein Found to Control Inflammatory Response
A new Northwestern Medicine study shows that a protein called POP1 prevents severe inflammation and, potentially, diseases caused by excessive inflammatory responses.
A Leap Forward in Vaccinating Against HIV
A team of scientists has developed an experimental vaccine candidate that successfully stimulates the immune system activity in animal models necessary to stop HIV infection.
MRI Scanners Can Steer Therapeutics to Specific Target Sites
Scientists from the University of Sheffield have discovered MRI scanners, normally used to produce images, can steer cell-based, tumour busting therapies to specific target sites in the body.
SELECTBIO

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
2,500+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
3,800+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FREE!