Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Immunology
Scientific Community
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

Yale-led Team Decodes Genetic Basis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Published: Friday, November 02, 2012
Last Updated: Thursday, November 01, 2012
Bookmark and Share
Study appears in the November 1 issue of the journal Nature.

In one of the largest studies of its kind ever conducted, an international team of scientists has thrown new light on the genetic basis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a group of chronic autoimmune digestive disorders affecting 2.5 million people worldwide. The study appears in the November 1 issue of the journal Nature.

The new study links variations in 163 regions of the human genome, 71 of which are newly discovered, to an increased risk of contracting IBD.

These regions showed a striking overlap with those implicated in other autoimmune diseases, note researchers, and suggest that IBD results from overactive immune defense systems that evolved to fight off serious bacterial infections.

In IBD, the body’s immune system produces an ongoing inflammatory reaction in the intestinal tract that injures the intestinal wall, leading to diarrhea and abdominal pain.

IBD patients typically require lifelong treatment with drug therapy, and often need surgery to repair tissue damage caused by the disease.

“Up until this point we have been studying the two main forms of IBD, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, separately,” said co-lead author Judy H. Cho, the Henry J. and Joan W. Binder Professor of Gastroenterology and professor of genetics at Yale School of Medicine. “We created this study based on what seems to be a vast amount of genetic overlap between the two disorders.”

In the first step of the study, the researchers conducted a “meta-analysis” of 15 previous genomic studies of either Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC), the two most common forms of IBD, creating a large dataset that combined genetic information from some 34,000 individuals who took part in those studies.

The results then formed part of a second meta-analysis that included data from new genome-wide scans of more than 41,000 DNA samples from CD/UC patients and healthy comparison subjects collected at 11 centers around the world by the International IBD Genetics Consortium.

In addition to confirming that 92 regions identified in previous research confer a significant risk of CD, UC, or both, the study linked 71 additional stretches of the genome to IBD.

The IBD-linked variants identified by the scientists largely fall in genomic regions that regulate the expression of immune-system genes implicated in other autoimmune diseases, particularly the skin disease psoriasis and an inflammatory joint disorder known as ankylosing spondylitis.

Genes affected by these regulatory regions are also involved in the production of immune cells that fight infection by mycobacteria, a family of microbes that cause diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis.

“We see a genetic balancing act between defending against bacterial infection and attacking the body’s own cells,” said Jeffrey Barrett of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Cambridge, England, also a lead author of the study.

Barrett continued, “Many of the regions we found are involved in sending out signals and responses to defend against bad bacteria. If these responses are over-activated, we found it can contribute to the inflammation that leads to IBD.”

Nearly 100 scientists in 15 countries contributed to the new work, which “highlights the incredible power that working together in a large team can have,” said Cho, director of the inflammatory bowel disease center in Yale’s Department of Internal Medicine.

“This would not have been possible without the thousands of DNA samples from patients with these conditions assembled by the International IBD Genetics Consortium. Collectively, our findings have begun to uncover the biological mechanisms behind this disease.”


Further Information

Join For Free

Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 3,000+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More than 4,400+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

Reduced Immune Response Causes Flu Deaths in Older Adults
Yale study suggests that immune response to flu causes death in older people, not the virus.
Friday, April 22, 2016
CNS Inflammation: A Pathway and Possible Drug Target
Scientists have long known that the central nervous system (CNS) has a remarkable ability to limit excessive inflammation in the presence of antigens or injury, but how it works has been unclear.
Tuesday, April 12, 2016
Chaos, Hope, And The Lupus Butterfly Theory
The lupus butterfly theory suggests that antibodies that attack DNA in lupus may be sources of both chaos and hope.
Wednesday, April 06, 2016
Life-Extending Hormone Bolsters Immunity
A hormone that extends lifespan in mice by 40% is produced by specialized cells in the thymus gland, according to a new study by Yale School of Medicine researchers.
Wednesday, January 13, 2016
Creating More Potent Vaccines
Yale researchers uncovered a new role for a type of immune cell, known as regulatory T cells, in promoting long-term immunity.
Wednesday, July 08, 2015
Researchers Solve Multiple Sclerosis Puzzle
Yale study shows the role that T cells play in MS.
Monday, May 18, 2015
New Tool To Explore Mysteries Of The Immune System
Yale scientists use CyTOF to study a range of conditions.
Monday, April 20, 2015
Cold Virus Replicates Better At Cooler Temperatures
Study shows that the immune response to rhinovirus is influenced by temperature.
Tuesday, January 06, 2015
New Class of Synthetic Molecules Mimics Antibodies
A Yale University lab has crafted the first synthetic molecules that have both the targeting and response functions of antibodies.
Wednesday, December 24, 2014
Protein Predicts Response To New Immunotherapy Drug
Trial shows that response to treatment may be predicted by the presence of an immune-suppressing protein in non-cancerous immune cells.
Friday, November 28, 2014
Immune System Surprise Hints at New Strategy for Fighting HIV
Surprising twist may open a new avenue in the fight.
Tuesday, November 18, 2014
Immune Cells get Cancer-Fighting Boost From Nanomaterials
Yale researchers used bundled carbon nanotubes to incubate cytotoxic T cells.
Monday, August 18, 2014
Commonly Used Drugs May Not Be Effective Against Autoimmune Illness
The study appears in the Cell Press journal Immunity.
Tuesday, March 18, 2014
Yale Team Implants Human Innate Immune Cells in Mice
Groundbreaking study has reproduced human immune function at a level not seen previously.
Tuesday, March 18, 2014
Lung Disease and Melanoma: a Common Molecular Mechanism?
Researchers have solved a biological mystery about the common genesis of many serious diseases such as asthma and metastatic melanoma.
Monday, September 02, 2013
Scientific News
Understanding Female HIV Transmission
Glowing virus maps points of entry through entire female reproductive tract for first time.
COPD Linked to Increased Bacterial Invasion
Persistent inflammation in COPD may result from a defect in the immune system that allows airway bacteria to invade deeper into the lung.
Finding Factors That Protect Against Flu
A clinical trial examining the body’s response to seasonal flu suggests new approaches for evaluating the effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccines.
Vaccinations Are More Effective When Administered In The Morning
Research from the University of Birmingham shows that influenza vaccinations have more protective responses when administered in the morning.
Secrets of a Deadly Virus Family Revealed
Scripps Research scientists uncover the glycoprotein structure of LCMV. The findings could guide development of treatments for Lassa fever.
Cytokine Triggers Immune Response at Expense of Blood Renewal
Research highlights promise of Anti-IL-1 drugs to treat chronic inflammatory disease.
Reduced Immune Response Causes Flu Deaths in Older Adults
Yale study suggests that immune response to flu causes death in older people, not the virus.
Exposure To Routine Viruses Makes Mice Better Test Subjects
Study shows that infections make mouse immune system act more like that in humans.
Immune Booster Tested in Advanced Merkel Cell Cancer
The immunotherapy drug produced durable responses in many patients.
Factors Influencing Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Uncovered
The long-held approach to predicting seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness may need to be revisited, new research suggests.
SELECTBIO

SELECTBIO Market Reports
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
3,000+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
4,400+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FOR FREE!