Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Immunology
Scientific Community
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

Immune Cells Cluster and Communicate ‘Like Bees,’ Researcher Says

Published: Monday, March 18, 2013
Last Updated: Monday, March 18, 2013
Bookmark and Share
UCSF study on T-cell behavior sheds light on how vaccines work.

The immune system’s T cells, while coordinating responses to diseases and vaccines, act like honey bees sharing information about the best honey sources, according to a new study by scientists at UC San Francisco.

“In the morning, each bee goes looking individually for a sugar source, then comes back to the hive and does a dance in front of the other bees describing the location of what it’s found, which helps the hive decide collectively where the best source is,” said senior scientist Matthew Krummel, PhD, a UCSF professor of pathology.

They don’t bust the same moves as bees, but T cells gather together and communicate essential information to each other in a similar way, Krummel said, thereby helping to coordinate immune responses directed against invading pathogens. This discovery might lead to useful therapeutic interventions to fight disease, according to Krummel.

Results of the study were published online March 10 in Nature Immunology.

Helping the Immune System to Recognize a Pathogen
Krummel’s lab team found that after individual T cells survey lymph nodes and sample foreign matter, such as vaccines, bacteria or viruses, they come together as a group during what he and his team call the “critical differentiation period.” This occurs several hours to one day after exposure.

“They cluster together for the purpose of sharing information, transmitting what they’ve discovered about the new pathogen or vaccine, which in turn helps the immune system mount a coordinated response to the foreign matter,” Krummel said.

The discovery is important, Krummel said, because it sheds light on an aspect of medicine that has long been obscure: how vaccines work. “We know that they are effective for years after a vaccination, but we don’t know why. It seems that T-cell aggregation is a profound part of the reason.”

Krummel’s team found that the critical differentiation period is essential to the formation of what is known as a “memory pool,” the mechanism by which the immune system recognizes a pathogen to which it had been exposed months or years previously.

“Without that long-term memory, vaccines would be useless,” Krummel said. “The body wouldn’t remember that it had been exposed to a particular pathogen, such as measles or diphtheria, and would not know how to successfully fight it off.”

In experiments with a mouse model of human immune function, the scientists vaccinated mice for listeria, a common bacterium that causes food-borne illness, and then exposed the animals to the bacteria.

Mice in which the critical differentiation period was allowed to occur unimpeded remained healthy, protected from a potentially lethal infection. In mice in which T-cell differentiation was blocked, said Krummel, “it was as if the mice had never been vaccinated at all.”

Krummel said the work also opens up new paths of research in immunology, which his laboratory is currently pursuing. “Now that we know that there is a nexus at which the cells are integrating their responses, we might be able to design cells that will join that nexus in order to get the cells to do things we want them to do - push immune response in a particular direction, or enhance it overall,” he said.

Conversely, Krummel speculated that in case of autoimmune disorders, such as diabetes or lupus, “it might be possible to attenuate the immune response by blocking the formation of a memory pool.”

“You can’t eliminate insulin, which is what much of the immune response is reacting to in diabetes,” he said. “But if you can tweak the immune cells in the right way, then although each cell would be responding to insulin, they would not be reacting as a group and thus may not become effective at killing the insulin-producing cells. That would severely weaken the autoimmune effect."

Krummel cautioned that while the mouse model of human immune response is “robust and very well-grounded,” research will ultimately have to take place in humans, “which will be years away. We’ll have to see what happens.”


Further Information
Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 2,500+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More than 3,800+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.


Scientific News
Inciting an Immune Attack On Cancer Cells
A new minimally invasive vaccine that combines cancer cells and immune-enhancing factors could be used clinically to launch a destructive attack on tumors.
Inciting an Immune Attack on Cancer Cells
A new minimally invasive vaccine that combines cancer cells and immune-enhancing factors could be used clinically to launch a destructive attack on tumors.
Inflammation Linked to Colon Cancer Metastasis
A new Arizona State University research study led by Biodesign Institute executive director Raymond DuBois has identified for the first time the details of how inflammation triggers colon cancer cells to spread to other organs, or metastasize.
New Strategy for Combating Adenoviruses
Using an animal model they developed, Saint Louis University and Utah State university researchers have identified a strategy that could keep a common group of viruses called adenoviruses from replicating and causing sickness in humans.
Major Advance Toward More Effective, Long-Lasting Flu Vaccine
Collaboration shows vaccine candidate can produce powerful ‘broadly neutralizing antibodies’ in animal models.
Immune System: Help for Killer Cells
A study from the University of Bonn may show the way to more effective vaccines.
Protein Found to Control Inflammatory Response
A new Northwestern Medicine study shows that a protein called POP1 prevents severe inflammation and, potentially, diseases caused by excessive inflammatory responses.
A Leap Forward in Vaccinating Against HIV
A team of scientists has developed an experimental vaccine candidate that successfully stimulates the immune system activity in animal models necessary to stop HIV infection.
MRI Scanners Can Steer Therapeutics to Specific Target Sites
Scientists from the University of Sheffield have discovered MRI scanners, normally used to produce images, can steer cell-based, tumour busting therapies to specific target sites in the body.
Agricultural Intervention Improves HIV Outcomes
A multifaceted farming intervention can reduce food insecurity while improving HIV outcomes in patients in Kenya, according to a randomized, controlled trial led by researchers at UC San Francisco.
SELECTBIO

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
2,500+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
3,800+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FREE!