Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Proteomics
Scientific Community
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

Protein Regulates Protein Folding in Cells During Stress

Published: Thursday, January 03, 2013
Last Updated: Thursday, January 03, 2013
Bookmark and Share
Researchers link protein known for cell mobility with protein folding during stress.

Cornell researchers have discovered that a protein known for moving cells around in the body also helps regulate a cellular organelle responsible for generating one-third of all proteins in the human body.

The protein, called non-muscle myosin IIB (NMIIB), is required to alleviate stress that occurs when the cell's protein factory, the endoplasmic reticulum, is overburdened.

In the study, published in the Dec. 11 issue of the journal Developmental Cell, the researchers knocked out the gene that codes for NMIIB in mouse cells as well as a model organism, the roundworm C. elegans, and found that when the endoplasmic reticulum was under stress, the cells were unable to respond properly and errors in protein folding were left uncorrected.

As a protein's final structure is key to its proper function, improperly folded proteins lead to cell death and underlie the development of human diseases including diabetes, cystic fibrosis, and neurodegenerative and other conformational diseases.

"If cells cannot adjust folding capacity in response to cellular needs, then they die," said Ling Qi, Cornell assistant professor of nutritional sciences and the study's senior author. Yin He, a graduate student in the Qi lab, is the paper's lead author.

When the endoplasmic reticulum is stressed, order is partly restored by a protein called IRE1α, which has been used by organisms throughout evolution.

IRE1α senses mis-folded proteins, binds to them and triggers a cascade of signals to the cell's nucleus. The nucleus then responds by improving the folding environment within the endoplasmic reticulum.

During normal function, NMIIB lies in a folded, inactive form, but during endoplasmic reticulum stress, NMIIB unfolds. When unfurled, NMIIB has a tail that acts as a cantilever, attaching to IRE1α and moving it into aggregates or foci, required for optimal IRE1 activation and function.

"When we knock out myosin, we don't see the IRE1α foci, and if there is no foci, then the downstream signaling and the stress response is attenuated," said Qi.

NMIIB is a cytoskeletal protein, a structural element that exists in the cell's inner fluid and helps provide the cell with its structure. The researchers were surprised to find such a protein involved in IRE1α activation since activation signals during stress were previously thought emanate from compartments of the endoplasmic reticulum, called lumen, where protein folding occurs, Qi added.

"No one has previously reported a link between IRE1α and NMIIB," said He. "Since endoplasmic reticulum stress is associated with so many human diseases, we want to identify novel regulators of these pathways so we can target them therapeutically," she added.


Further Information
Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 2,400+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More than 3,700+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

Gene Prevents Buildup of Misfolded Cell Proteins
For the first time, Cornell researchers have demonstrated how a gene called SEL1L plays a critical role in clearing away misfolded proteins.
Friday, January 24, 2014
Shark, Human Proteins are Surprisingly Similar
Despite widespread fascination with sharks, the world’s oldest ocean predators have long been a genetic mystery.
Friday, December 06, 2013
Gene Thought to be Linked to Alzheimer's is Marker for Only Mild Impairment
Defying the widely held belief that a specific gene is the biggest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, report says that people with that gene are more likely to develop mild cognitive impairment -- but not Alzheimer's.
Monday, February 18, 2013
Imaging Facility adds Two Tools for Microscopy
Cornell's Imaging Facility owns microscopes, scanners and ultrasound units for revealing details that can't be seen with the naked eye.
Monday, February 18, 2013
Study Finds How Stressed-Out Cells Halt Protein Synthesis
Researchers also find protein-making can be resumed once stress has passed.
Wednesday, January 09, 2013
Study: How Cells form 'Trash Bags' for Recycling Waste
A class of membrane-sculpting proteins create vesicles that carry old and damaged proteins from the surface of cellular compartments into internal recycling plants where the waste is degraded and components are reused.
Tuesday, October 23, 2012
Proteins Barge in to Turn Off Unneeded Genes and Save Energy
When they activate a gene, living cells have a system in reserve to turn it off.
Friday, September 07, 2012
Cell Membrane Proteins Feel Long-Range Forces
Proteins embedded in the lipid membranes of cells feel long-range attractive forces in specific patterns that mediate the proteins' behaviour.
Wednesday, September 05, 2012
New Method Helps Researchers Decode Genomes
Although scientists sequenced the entire human genome more than 10 years ago, much work remains to understand what proteins all those genes code for.
Wednesday, September 05, 2012
Cell Membrane Proteins Feel Long-Range Forces
A team from Cornell have identified the physical mechanisms behind protein interactions, which are set off by changes in cellular membranes.
Thursday, August 30, 2012
Insights into Protein Folding May Lead to Better Flu Vaccine
New method for looking at how proteins fold allows researchers to take snapshots of ribosomes.
Friday, August 03, 2012
Bacteria Employ 'Quality-control' Machinery, say Biomolecular Engineers
Like quality-control managers in factories, bacteria possess built-in machinery that track the shape and quality of proteins trying to pass through their cytoplasmic membranes.
Friday, August 03, 2012
Scientific News
Sorting Through Cellular Statistics
Aaron Dinner, professor in chemistry, and his graduate student Herman Gudjonson are trying to read the manual of life, DNA, as part of the Dinner group’s research into bioinformatics—the application of statistics to biological research.
First Artificial Ribosome Designed
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Northwestern University have engineered a tethered ribosome that works nearly as well as the authentic cellular component, or organelle, that produces all the proteins and enzymes within the cell.
The Genetic Roots of Adolescent Scoliosis
Scientists at the RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences in collaboration with Keio University in Japan have discovered a gene that is linked to susceptibility of Scoliosis.
HIV Susceptibility Linked to Little-Understood Immune Cell Class
High levels of diversity among immune cells called natural killer cells may strongly predispose people to infection by HIV, and may be driven by prior viral exposures, according to a new study.
New Tech Enables Epigenomic Analysis with a Mere 100 Cells
A new technology that will dramatically enhance investigations of epigenomes, the machinery that turns on and off genes and a very prominent field of study in diseases such as stem cell differentiation, inflammation and cancer has been developed by researchers at Virginia Tech.
TOPLESS Plants Provide Clues to Human Molecular Interactions
Scientists at Van Andel Research Institute have revealed an important molecular mechanism in plants that has significant similarities to certain signaling mechanisms in humans, which are closely linked to early embryonic development and to diseases such as cancer.
Toxin from Salmonid Fish has Potential to Treat Cancer
Researchers from the University of Freiburg decode molecular mechanism of fish pathogen.
Study Finds Non-Genetic Cancer Mechanism
Cancer can be caused solely by protein imbalances within cells, a study of ovarian cancer has found.
Long-sought Discovery Fills in Missing Details of Cell 'Switchboard'
A biomedical breakthrough reveals never-before-seen details of the human body’s cellular switchboard that regulates sensory and hormonal responses.
Rice Disease-Resistance Discovery Closes the Loop for Scientific Integrity
Researchers reveal how disease resistant rice detects and responds to bacterial infections.
Scroll Up
Scroll Down
Skyscraper Banner

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
2,400+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
3,700+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FREE!