Satellite Banner
RNAi
Scientific Community
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

Comprehensive View of Breast Cancer Reveals New Insights

Published: Friday, September 28, 2012
Last Updated: Friday, September 28, 2012
Bookmark and Share
New research suggests that Basal-like breast cancer is genetically distinct from other breast cancer subtypes.

At first glance, the two tumor subtypes seem to have little in common: one takes root in the ovaries and the other, in breast tissue.

Conventionally, tumors like these are referred to by their organ of origin and other basic characteristics such as the cell type that spawned them.

But through projects like The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), researchers from the Broad Institute and elsewhere are taking a deeper look at cancer’s many forms and finding genomic similarities that cut across these classifications, as well as great diversity within single classes of cancer.

In a paper published online Sunday in Nature, the TCGA network describes discoveries gleaned from characterizing samples from 825 breast cancer patients.

Breast cancer is a diverse disease with four primary subtypes. The new research suggests that one of these subtypes - Basal-like breast cancer -is genetically distinct from other breast cancer subtypes, but shares many molecular characteristics with high-grade serous ovarian cancer, a form of cancer that is also notoriously difficult to treat.

“The underlying genomic alterations in Basal-breast cancer were different than they were in the other breast cancer subtypes,” said Andrew Cherniack, a research scientist in the Broad’s Cancer Program and an author of the paper. “Molecularly, it’s a different disease.”

The Broad Genomic Characterization Center, led by Matthew Meyerson and Stacey Gabriel, provides all genomic copy number data for the entire TCGA.

In cancer, large pieces of DNA can get amplified (copied and pasted multiple times) or deleted, resulting in distorted genomic function.

Copy number analysis allows researchers to detect these large additions and subtractions. This analysis, along with other lines of evidence, helped the team see how distinct Basal-breast cancer was from other forms of the disease and to discover its similarity to high-grade serous ovarian cancer, which was characterized in depth by the TCGA last year.

In addition to processing and analyzing samples sent to the Broad, researchers at the Broad oversee the system known as Firehose, which is used to analyze all of the TCGA data generated not only at the Broad but also at the other TCGA centers.

Gad Getz, the director of Cancer Genome Computational Analysis at the Broad, and his team developed Firehose, which incorporates tools developed by several groups including those from the Broad, such as the software package GenePattern.

“With a dozen centers involved in the TCGA project, tools like Firehose can help us coordinate and consolidate data analysis,” said Gordon Saksena, a senior software engineer in Getz’s group and an author of the paper.

Saksena continued, “It’s great to have this much data for testing, refining, and improving our models. And, with so many samples, we can identify more genes that appear to be under positive selection within the tumor, and thus worthy of further study.”

In addition to breast cancer and ovarian cancer, the TCGA has also published analyses on glioblastoma multiforme, colorectal adenocarcinoma, and lung squamous cell carcinoma.

“As we work on more TCGA projects, we can begin to make associations among subgroups of different types of cancer,” said Getz. “These are the kinds of connections that we would never have been able to make without this level of genetic detail or this quantity of samples.”

Mike Noble, a software engineering manager in Getz’s group and an author of the breast cancer paper, describes the work of the TCGA as creating maps, and likens the first major papers from the TCGA on each of form of cancer as markers along a trail.

"These marker papers we've published on brain, breast, and lung cancer are like the first sign posts erected along trails that will be blazed with these maps," said Noble.

Noble continued, "And it's really just the beginning: once you establish your map, you start building your roads, you build your signposts, and then everyone wants to start traveling."


Further Information

Join For Free

Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 3,300+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More than 4,800+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.


Scientific News
Liquid Biopsies: Miracle Diagnostic or Next New Fad?
Thanks to the development of highly specific gene-amplification and sequencing technologies liquid biopsies access more biomarkers relevant to more cancers than ever before.
Colon Cancer Blocked in Mice
Case Western Reserve University Researchers block common type of colon cancer tumour in mice, laying groundwork for human clinical trial.
Protein Nanocages Could Improve Drug Design and Delivery
HHMI scientists have designed and built 10 large protein icosahedra that are similar to viral capsids that carry viral DNA.
Discovered Through ‘Big Data’ Analysis
Researchers at the SBP have identified over 100 new genetic regions that affect the immune response to cancer.
New Therapeutic Targets For Small Cell Lung Cancer Identified
Researchers at UTSW Medical Center have identified a protein termed ASCL1 that is essential to the development of small cell lung cancer and that, when deleted in the lungs of mice, prevents the cancer from forming.
Liquid Biopsies Treating Ovarian Cancer
Researchers have discovered a promising monitor and treat recurrence of ovarian cancer. Detecting cancer long before tumours reappear.
Virus Inspired Cell Cargo Ships
Virus-inspired container design may lead to cell cargo ships following construction of ten large, two-component, icosahedral protein complexes.
Uncovering a New Principle in Chemotherapy Resistance in Breast Cancer
The NIH study has revealed an entirely unexpected process for acquiring drug resistance that bypasses the need to re-establish DNA damage repair in breast cancers that have mutant BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
Understanding Treatment Resistant Melanoma
Researchers have determined how advanced melanoma becomes resistant; a development toward developing treatments.
Liquid Biopsies: DNA Size Matters
Study finds circulating tumour DNA can be distinguished from healthy DNA through fragment size identification.
SELECTBIO

SELECTBIO Market Reports
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
3,300+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
4,800+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FOR FREE!