Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
RNAi
Scientific Community
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

Activated Blood Platelets Enable Cancer Cells to Penetrate Blood Vessels

Published: Monday, July 08, 2013
Last Updated: Monday, July 08, 2013
Bookmark and Share
In the majority of cases, metastases formation develops via the blood vascular system.

The blood platelets thereby provide invaluable help to the tumour cells in penetrating new organs. Scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research in Bad Nauheim have identified the P2Y2 receptor molecule on the cells of the blood platelet wall as the gateway that allows the cancer cells to enter the organs. They now aim to prevent the formation of metastases through the targeted blocking of this key molecule.

Blood platelets play a crucial role in haemostasis. When a blood vessel is injured, the platelets ensure the rapid initial closure of the wound. To do this, they quickly adhere to the wall of the injured blood vessel, thereby attracting more platelets which aggregate and form a plug that blocks the opening in the blood vessel wall. To enable the optimal functioning of this “rapid reaction force” in the event of injury to blood vessel walls, the blood platelets release a veritable shower of signal molecules. The cells communicate with each other in this manner. Moreover, the platelets, which normally circulate in the blood stream in an inactive state, are activated in a matter of seconds and fundamentally alter their characteristics.

Malignant tumours, which often spread to previously unaffected organs through the blood stream, use the blood platelets to penetrate the hermetically-sealed blood vessel wall. “It has long been known that metastasising tumour cells are capable of establishing close contact with blood platelets and activating them. Animal experiments have shown that tumour cells form far fewer metastases in the absence of blood platelets,” says Stefan Offermanns, Director of the Department of Pharmacology at the Bad Nauheim-based Max Planck Institute. In addition, clinical studies have shown that patients who receive long-term treatment with platelet inhibitors like acetylsalicylic acid present a lower risk of developing metastasising tumours.

Offermanns’ Research Group has succeeded in explaining exactly how this process unfolds. Activated blood cells release a large amount of molecules including adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The scientists observed in cell cultures that blocking ATP release from blood platelets resulted in a significant reduction in the number of tumour cells migrating through the endothelial cells in the blood vessel wall. “We succeeded in demonstrating the same phenomenon in experiments on mice, in which the release of ATP from blood platelets was blocked. In this case too, far fewer tumour cells slipped through the endothelial barrier and fewer metastases formed,” says Dagmar Schuhmacher, one of the study’s first authors.

However, what exactly happens in the blood vessel wall that enables the tumour cells to penetrate it? The Max Planck researchers were able to demonstrate that ATP from the blood platelets binds with a particular receptor called P2Y2. This docking site is located on the surface of the endothelial cells. “When ATP binds to these receptors, small openings form between the individual endothelial cells. The tumour cells exit the blood vessel through these openings and migrate into the organ,” explains Boris Strilic, also a first author of the study.

With the identification of this hitherto unknown role of blood platelets in metastases formation, the researchers hope to have found possible starting points for a new therapeutic approach. “We will now test whether specific blockers for the P2Y2 receptor or substances that inhibit the release of ATP from blood platelets can suppress tumour cell metastasis in different animal models,” says Offermanns. The specific challenge the scientists must overcome here is to avoid suppressing the actual job of the platelets, namely haemostasis, in the process. If they manage to do this, a better treatment for malignant tumours may become available in the future.


Further Information

Join For Free

Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 2,900+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More than 4,200+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.


Scientific News
Retractable Protein Nanoneedles
The ability to control the transfer of molecules through cellular membranes is an important function in synthetic biology; a new study from researchers at Harvard’s Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering and Harvard Medical School (HMS) introduces a novel mechanical method for controlling release of molecules inside cells.
Advancing Synthetic Biology
Living systems rely on a dizzying variety of chemical reactions essential to development and survival. Most of these involve a specialized class of protein molecules — the enzymes.
NIH Researchers Identify Striking Genomic Signature for Cancer
Institute has identified striking signature shared by five types of cancer.
CRI Develops Innovative Approach for Identifying Lung Cancer
Institute has developed innovative approach for identifying processes that fuel tumor growth in lung cancer patients.
Counting Cancer-busting Oxygen Molecules
Researchers from the Centre for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP), an Australian Research Centre of Excellence, have shown that nanoparticles used in combination with X-rays, are a viable method for killing cancer cells deep within the living body.
Crowdfunding the Fight Against Cancer
From budding social causes to groundbreaking businesses to the next big band, crowdfunding has helped connect countless worthy projects with like-minded people willing to support their efforts, even in small ways. But could crowdfunding help fight cancer?
Cancer Cells Kill Off Healthy Neighbours
Cancer cells create space to grow by killing off surrounding healthy cells, according to UK researchers working with fruit flies.
Cancer Drug Target Visualized at Atomic Resolution
New study using cryo-electron microscopy shows how potential drugs could inhibit cancer.
Genetic Mechanism Behind Cancer-Causing Mutations
Researchers at Indiana University has identified a genetic mechanism that is likely to drive mutations that can lead to cancer.
Future of Medicine Could be Found in a Tiny Crystal Ball
A Drexel University materials scientist has discovered a way to grow a crystal ball in a lab. Not the kind that soothsayers use to predict the future, but a microscopic version that could be used to encapsulate medication in a way that would allow it to deliver its curative payload more effectively inside the body.
SELECTBIO

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
2,900+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
4,200+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FOR FREE!