The MaxDiscovery™ Human IL-1ß ELISA Test Kit is designed for quantitative determination of the concentration of human IL-1ß in serum, plasma, and cell culture supernatant. Human interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) is a 17 kDa protein which is produced by various cells. IL-1ß has multiple functions including local inflammation. Following bacterial or immunoglobulin ligation of monocyte/macrophage CD14 (the LPS receptor) 17 or CD64 (the IgG receptor), IL-1ß can be released into a local environment. Within this environment, IL-1ß impacts a number of cells, facilitating mononuclear infiltration into an area of early inflammation. IL-1ß also induces expression of itself in newly arriving monocytes. In terms of other pro-inflammatory molecules, IL-1ß apparently is needed for the efficient production of IFN-?. On resident NK cells, IL-1ß apparently works in conjunction with macrophage-derived IL-12 to induce IFN-? secretion, resulting in an IFN-? induced activation of macrophages. Finally, IL-1ß also induces the expression of MMPs from resident fibroblasts. This can have at least two effects: first extracellular matrix degradation can facilitate monocyte migration, and second, MMPs are known to degrade IL-1ß, thus down-modulating the local inflammatory response initiated by IL-1. Selected References: Chiang, C.Y. et al (Nov. 2010) Fiber-optic particle plasmon resonance sensor for detection of interleukin-1ß in synovial fluids Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 26 (3), p.1036. doi:10.1016/j.bios.2010.08.047.