The MaxDiscovery™ Human IL-20 ELISA Test Kit is designed for quantitative determination of the concentration of human IL-20 in serum, plasma, and cell culture supernatant. Human interleukin 20 (IL-20) is a single polypeptide of 152 amino acids after cleavage of a 24 amino acid signal peptide. It is a member of the IL-10 family of cytokines and shares approximately 28% amino acid identity with IL-10 and 76% amino acid identity with mouse IL-20. Expression of IL-20 can be upregulated by treatment with lipopolysaccharide. There are two heterodimeric receptor complexes for IL-20. The first is composed of IL-20 Ra and IL-20 Rß. The second is composed of IL-22 R and IL-20 Rß. Whereas the IL-22 R/IL-20 Rß complex is shared with IL-24, the IL-20 Ra/IL-20 Rß complex is shared with both IL-19 and IL-24. IL-20 has been shown to initiate transduction cascades involving STAT3 and stimulates the induction of pro-inflammatory genes including TNF-a and MCP-1. Initial functional studies using transgenic mice suggest that IL-20 has the ability to regulate skin development. The over-expression of both human and mouse forms of IL-20 results in keratinocyte hyperproliferation, abnormal epidermal differentiation, and neonatal lethality. In humans, IL-20 and its receptors are upregulated in psoriatic skin, and polymorphisms in the IL-20 gene have been associated with plaque-type psoriasis. IL-20 may also have a role in hematopoiesis. It enhances the proliferation of multipotential progenitors in vitro and increases their numbers and cell cycling status in IL-20 transgenic mice. IL-20 is also shown to suppress COX-2 and PGE2 and acts as an inhibitor of angiogenesis in model systems.