The MaxDiscovery™ Human IL-4 ELISA Test Kit is designed for quantitative determination of the concentration of human interleukin 4 (IL-4) in serum, plasma, and cell culture supernatant. IL-4 is a protein of 129 amino acids that is synthesized as a precursor containing a hydrophobic secretory signal sequence. It is produced mainly in T cells. IL-4 is glycosylated at two arginine residues (positions 38 and 105) and contains six cysteine residues involved in disulfide bond formation. The disulfide bonds are essential for many biological activities. Some glycosylation variants of IL-4 have been described that differ in their biological activities. IL-4 enhances expression of class II MHC antigens on B cells. It can promote their capacity to respond to other B cell stimuli and to present antigens for T cells. IL-4 inhibits cell activation of NK-cells induced by IL-2 and stimulates the proliferation of thymocytes with the marker spectrum CD4 (-) CD8 (-), CD4 (+) CD8 (-), CD4 (-) CD8 (+).
Charting Kidney Cancer Metabolism Changes in cell metabolism are increasingly recognized as an important way tumors develop and progress, yet these changes are hard to measure and interpret. A new tool designed by MSK scientists allows users to identify metabolic changes in kidney cancer tumors that may one day be targets for therapy.Insights into the Function of the Main Class of Drug Targets About thirty percent of all medical drugs such as beta-blockers or antidepressants interact with certain types of cell surface proteins called G protein coupled receptors.Visualizing a Cancer Drug Target at Atomic Resolution Using cryo-electron microscopy, researchers were able to view, in atomic detail, the binding of a potential small molecule drug to a key protein in cancer cells.Honey’s Potential to Save Lives The healing powers of honey have been known for thousands of years. 3-D Printed Lifelike Liver Tissue for Drug Screening A team led by engineers at the University of California, San Diego has 3D-printed a tissue that closely mimics the human liver's sophisticated structure and function. The new model could be used for patient-specific drug screening and disease modeling. Cytoskeleton Crew Findings confirm sugar's role in helping cancers survive by changing cellular architecture.Biomarker for Recurring HPV-Linked Oropharyngeal Cancers A look-back analysis of HPV infection antibodies in patients treated for oropharyngeal (mouth and throat) cancers linked to HPV infection suggests at least one of the antibodies could be useful in identifying those at risk for a recurrence of the cancer, say scientists at the Johns Hopkins University. Valvena, GSK Sign New R&D Collaboration Valneva to supply process development services for EB66® -based Influenza vaccines. Light Signals from Living Cells Fluorescent protein markers delivered under high pressure.Cellular 'Relief Valve' A team led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) has solved a long-standing mystery in cell biology by showing essentially how a key “relief-valve” in cells does its job.