The MaxDiscovery™ Human TNF-a ELISA Test Kit is designed for quantitative determination of the concentration of human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a, also known as cachectin) in serum, plasma, and cell culture supernatant. Human TNF-a is a 17.5 kDa polypeptide of 157 amino acids. It is a potent lymphoid factor which exerts cytotoxic effects on a wide range of tumor cells. This cytokine is a primary regulator of inflammatory responses. TNF-a is produced by macrophages, neutrophils, activated T and B lymphocytes, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, astrocytes, natural killer cells, lymphokine-activated killer cells, and some transformed cells. TNF-a, and LT-a (lymphotoxin cellular receptors (CD 120a and CD120b), and produce similar effects. TNF-a plays a critical role in the destruction of certain tumors and in the body’s resistance to infection by inducing fever and activating macrophages. Over-production of TNF has been associated with cytotoxic effects such as cachexia. Selected Citations: Shin, S. Y. et al., (April 2011) Total and Interatrial Epicardial Adipose Tissues Are Independently Associated With Left Atrial Remodeling in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electr. 22 (6): 647 – 655.