Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Technology
Networks
Scientific Communities
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

A Quantitative Approach to Nucleophilic Organocatalysis

Published: Monday, September 17, 2012
Last Updated: Monday, September 17, 2012
Bookmark and Share
In this review article researchers demonstrate that important information can be obtained by specifically synthesizing relevant intermediates and studying the kinetics of their reactions with nucleophiles or electrophiles.

Abstract
The key steps in most organocatalytic cyclizations are the reactions of electrophiles with nucleophiles. Their rates can be calculated by the linear free-energy relationship log k(20 °C) = sN(E + N), where electrophiles are characterized by one parameter (E) and nucleophiles are characterized by the solvent-dependent nucleophilicity (N) and sensitivity (sN) parameters. 

Electrophilicity parameters in the range –10 < E < –5 were determined for iminium ions derived from cinnamaldehyde and common organocatalysts, such as pyrrolidines and imidazolidinones, by studying the rates of their reactions with reference nucleophiles. Iminium activated reactions of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes can, therefore, be expected to proceed with nucleophiles of 2 < N < 14, because such nucleophiles are strong enough to react with iminium ions but weak enough not to react with their precursor aldehydes. With the N parameters of enamines derived from phenylacetaldehyde and MacMillan’s imidazolidinones one can rationalize why only strong electrophiles, such as stabilized carbenium ions (–8 < E < –2) or hexachlorocyclohexadienone (E = –6.75), are suitable electrophiles for enamine activated reactions with imidazolidinones. Several mechanistic controversies concerning iminium and enamine activated reactions could thus be settled by studying the reactivities of independently synthesized intermediates. 

Kinetic investigations of the reactions of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) with benzhydrylium ions showed that they have similar nucleophilicities to common organocatalysts (e.g., PPh3 , DMAP, DABCO) but are much stronger (100–200 kJ mol –1 ) Lewis bases. While structurally analogous imidazolylidenes and imidazolidinylidenes have comparable nucleophilicities and Lewis basicities, the corresponding deoxy Breslow intermediates differ dramatically in reactivity. The thousand-fold higher nucleophilicity of 2-benzylidene-imidazoline relative to 2-benzylidene-imidazolidine is explained by the gain of aromaticity during electrophilic additions to the imidazoline derivatives. O-Methylated Breslow intermediates are a hundred-fold less nucleophilic than deoxy Breslow intermediates. 

The article is published online in Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry and is free to access.


Further Information
Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 2,500+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More Than 3,800+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.


Scientific News
Health Risks of Saturated Fats Aggravated by Immune Response
Research shows that the presence of saturated fats resulted in monocytes migrating into the tissues of vital organs.
Changing the Biological Data Visualisation World
Scientists at TGAC, alongside European partners, have created a cutting-edge, open source community for the life sciences.
NIH Study Finds Calorie Restriction Lowers Some Risk Factors for Age-Related Diseases
Two-year trial did not produce expected metabolic changes, but influenced other life span markers.
Immunotherapy Agent Benefits Patients with Drug-Resistant Multiple Myeloma in First Human Trial
Daratumumab proved generally safe in patients, even at the highest doses.
Low-level Arsenic Exposure Before Birth Associated with Early Puberty in Female Mice
Study examine whether low-dose arsenic exposure could have similar health outcomes in humans.
Inciting an Immune Attack On Cancer Cells
A new minimally invasive vaccine that combines cancer cells and immune-enhancing factors could be used clinically to launch a destructive attack on tumors.
‘Mutation-Tracking’ Blood Test for Breast Cancer
Scientists have developed a blood test for breast cancer able to identify which patients will suffer a relapse after treatment, months before tumours are visible on hospital scans.
Cellular Contamination Pathway for Heavy Elements Identified
Berkeley Lab scientists find that an iron-binding protein can transport actinides into cells.
Intensity of Desert Storms May Affect Ocean Phytoplankton
MIT study finds phytoplankton are extremely sensitive to changing levels of desert dust.
Common ‘Heart Attack’ Blood Test May Predict Future Hypertension
Small rises in troponin levels may have value as markers for subclinical heart damage and high blood pressure.
Scroll Up
Scroll Down
Skyscraper Banner

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
2,500+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
3,800+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FREE!