Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Technology
Networks
Scientific Communities
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

Study Finds How Stressed-Out Cells Halt Protein Synthesis

Published: Wednesday, January 09, 2013
Last Updated: Wednesday, January 09, 2013
Bookmark and Share
Researchers also find protein-making can be resumed once stress has passed.

Cells experience stress in multiple ways. Temperature shifts, mis-folded proteins and oxidative damage can all cause cellular stress. But whatever the form of the stress, all cells quickly stop making proteins when under pressure.

A new Cornell study unravels how cells rapidly stall protein synthesis during stress and then resume their protein-making activities once the stress has passed.

If proteins continued to synthesize during stress, cells would waste energy, and damaged proteins would build up, leading to toxicity and disease.

Previously, researchers thought that during stress protein synthesis was only controlled at the point where the translation machinery starts to read mRNA, a DNA transcript carrying protein codes.

But the new study, published online Jan. 3 in the journal Molecular Cell, reports that the protein synthesis can actually be halted midway, during the subsequent phase in the protein synthesis process, called elongation, where proteins are being made in a long chain of amino acids, like ground beef coming out of a grinder.

The researchers used a technique they developed to monitor the protein synthesis process that involves ribosomes, which decode mRNA and build chains of amino acids, a protein's building blocks. They found, in the presence of stress and mis-folded proteins, the ribosomes pause during the early elongation process, when new peptides (chains of amino acids) were made but were still less than 50 amino acids long.

"We were very surprised," said Shu-Bing Qian, assistant professor of nutritional sciences at Cornell and the paper's senior author. "We thought it would pause everywhere, but we only found ribosomes pausing within the first 50 amino acids. We realized the translation machinery must have a mechanism for controlling trafficking in this region."

When peptides are made, they emerge from a tunnel at the end of the ribosome that is about 30 to 50 amino acids long. "Inside the tunnel, newly formed peptides are hidden from the outer environment," said Qian. But once they emerge, molecules called chaperones help to pull them from the ribosome.

The researchers found that under stress, chaperones were not present to pull the nascent peptides out as they emerged from the tunnel. The chaperones were instead recruited to help peptides -- damaged by conditions in the cell caused by stress -- refold into proteins.

"Our study shows that chaperones not only help folding but also control the ribosomes," said Qian. "We used chemical inhibitors to inhibit the chaperones in unstressed cells, and they paused in exactly the same place."

While Qian and colleagues looked at this process during stress caused by protein mis-folding, they believe the same process occurs no matter the source of stress.

If peptides were continuously produced during stress, they would become damaged and would accumulate, leading to toxicity and disease. Cancer cells, which grow out of control, have very high levels of chaperones for continuous protein synthesis. Researchers have developed chaperone inhibitors as a way of curbing cancer. Such inhibitors were used in this study to inhibit the chaperones in normal cells.

The study was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the Ellison Medical Foundation and the Department of Defense. Botao Liu, a graduate student, and Yan Han, a former postdoctoral associate, both in Qian's lab, were lead authors of the study.


Further Information

Join For Free

Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 3,300+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More Than 4,900+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

Key to Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is in Your Gut, Not Head
Researchers report they have identified biological markers of the disease in gut bacteria and inflammatory microbial agents in the blood.
Wednesday, June 29, 2016
Pathogen Takes Control of Gypsy Moth Populations
A new fungal pathogen is killing gypsy moth caterpillars and crowding out communities of pathogens and parasites that previously destroyed these moth pests.
Tuesday, April 26, 2016
Eating Green Could be in Your Genes
Genetic variation uncovered that has evolved in populations that have historically favored vegetarian diets, such as in India, Africa and parts of East Asia.
Friday, April 01, 2016
$4.8M USAID Grant to Improve Food Security
To strengthen capacity to develop and disseminate genetically engineered eggplant in Bangladesh and the Philippines, the USAID has awarded Cornell a $4.8 million, three-year cooperative grant.
Friday, April 01, 2016
Proteins Seek, Attack, Destroy Tumor Cells in Bloodstream
Using white blood cells to ferry potent cancer-killing proteins through the bloodstream virtually eliminates metastatic prostate cancer in mice, Cornell researchers have confirmed.
Friday, January 15, 2016
Tumor-suppressing Gene Lends Insight to Cancer Treatment
Researchers have found that delicate replication process derails if a gene named PTEN has mutated or is absent.
Tuesday, July 14, 2015
Synthetic Immune Organ Produces Antibodies
Cornell engineers have created a functional, synthetic immune organ that produces antibodies and can be controlled in the lab, completely separate from a living organism.
Friday, June 12, 2015
On Planes, Savory Tomato Becomes Favored Flavor
Study shows the effect that airplane noise has on passengers' taste preferences.
Friday, May 15, 2015
$5.5M NSF Grant Aims to Improve Rice Crops with Genome Editing
Researchers to precisely target, cut, remove and replace DNA in a living cell to improve rice.
Friday, May 08, 2015
'Shield' Gives Tricky Proteins a New Identity
Solubilization of Integral Membrane Proteins with high Levels of Expression.
Saturday, April 11, 2015
DNA Safeguard May Be Key In Cancer Treatment
Cornell researchers have developed a new technique to understand the actions of key proteins required for cancer cells to proliferate.
Monday, March 09, 2015
A ‘STAR’ is Born: Engineers Devise Genetic 'On' Switch
A new “on” switch to control gene expression has been developed by Cornell scientists.
Tuesday, February 03, 2015
Bacteria Be Gone!
New technology keeps bacteria from sticking to surfaces.
Monday, January 19, 2015
On the Environmental Trail of Food Pathogens
Learning where Listeria dwells can aid the search for other food pathogens.
Tuesday, December 23, 2014
Chemists Show That ALS is a Protein Aggregation Disease
Using a technique that illuminates subtle changes in individual proteins, chemistry researchers at Cornell have uncovered new insight into the underlying causes of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).
Thursday, October 23, 2014
Scientific News
Breakthrough Flu Vaccine Inhibited by Pre-existing Antibodies
Universal truths – how existing antibodies are sabotaging the most promising new human flu vaccines.
Researchers Develop Software That Could Facilitate Drug Development
AptaTRACE can identify aptamers, potentially speed drug advancement.
Gene Therapy for Metabolic Liver Diseases
Researchers have tested gene therapy in pigs from hereditary tyrosinemia type 1, with corrected liver cells being transplanted into the diseased liver.
Zika Vaccine Candidates Show Promise
Two experimental vaccines have shown promise against a major viral strain responsible for the Brazilian Zika outbreak.
New Medication Shows Promise Against Liver Fibrosis in Animal Studies
Liver fibrosis is a gradual scarring of the liver that puts people at risk for progressive liver disease and liver failure.
Raw Eggs Deemed Safe to Eat
A report published today by the Advisory Committee on the Microbiological Safety of Food (ACMSF) into egg safety has shown a major reduction in the risk from salmonella in UK eggs.
Monitoring TTX Toxin in Shellfish
In a number of small studies, mussels and oysters from the eastern and northern part of the Oosterschelde in Holland were found to contain tetrodotoxin (TTX).
Gene Terapy for Muscle Wasting Developed
New gene therapy could save millions of people suffering from muscle wasting disease.
NIH Begins Yellow Fever Vaccine Trial
NIH has initiated an early-stage clinical trial of a vaccine to protect against yellow fever.
Gene-Editing 'Toolbox' Targets Multiple Genes Simultaneously
Researchers have designed a system that modifies, or edits, multiple genes in a genome at once while minimising unintentional effects.
Scroll Up
Scroll Down
Skyscraper Banner

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
3,300+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
4,900+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FOR FREE!