Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Technology
Networks
Scientific Communities
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

HIV Testing Increased and Infection Reduced in Africa with Community Intervention

Published: Thursday, March 07, 2013
Last Updated: Wednesday, March 06, 2013
Bookmark and Share
Free mobile HIV testing and counseling, same-day results and post-test support reduces HIV infections by 14 percent.

Community intervention with free mobile HIV testing and counseling, same-day results and post-test support led to a 14 percent reduction in new HIV infections in targeted communities in Sub-Saharan Africa, according to results of a large randomized, controlled trial.

In women between the ages of 25 and 32, the intervention showed an even greater effect, with rates of new infections lowered by almost one-third.

The trial, National Institute of Mental Health “Project Accept” (HIV Prevention Trial Network 043), was conducted in 48 communities at five sites in Zimbabwe, Tanzania, South Africa and Thailand.

The study was undertaken by UC San Francisco at the Zimbabwe site in collaboration with the University of Zimbabwe.

The trial sought to demonstrate a community-level impact on HIV when proven prevention interventions were taken to scale. A primary goal was to increase awareness of HIV status by decreasing barriers to testing.

“HIV testing increased by a quarter overall and we saw a four-fold increase in the detection of new HIV cases at the Sub-Saharan sites.” said Stephen F. Morin, PhD, co-principal investigator of the multi-institution trial and professor of medicine at the UCSF Center for AIDS Prevention Studies.

Morin continued, “The trial was particularly effective in increasing HIV testing among men. At baseline, women were far more likely to have been tested than men and the intervention increased their testing by 15 percent. However, the study’s success in substantially increasing HIV testing in men, by 45 percent, erased the gender gap.”

In addition, Morin said, the trial found that men who learned they were infected reduced their overall number of sexual partners by one-fifth and reduced their concurrent partnerships by almost one-third.

Many epidemiological studies have identified concurrent partnerships as a major impetus for high rates of HIV infections in Sub-Saharan Africa.

“The trial demonstrated that a well designed and implemented intervention can change behavior that leads to an effect at a community level. We were particularly successful in changing behavior in men after they learned they were infected, and we saw the impact in the sharp reduction in the rate of new infections in women in the intervention communities,” said Morin.

The results of the trial were presented at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Atlanta.

Multilayer Intervention Efforts
The trial was conducted over a 36-month period and involved large numbers of participants: 33,774 households were visited by field teams at baseline and 84,947 were visited at the post-intervention assessment. All of the sites, except Soweto, South Africa, were predominately rural. The Chiang Mai, Thailand, site was notable for the very low percentage of people in the community living with HIV - less than 1 percent.

Community mobilization activities included dispatching outreach workers and community-based volunteers door-to-door, holding large community meetings and the creation of “community working groups,” composed of local leaders who assisted in developing plans to increase utilization of testing services.

Testing was provided either at community sites or by mobile vans and provided same-day results. Counseling included individualized risk reduction assessments and referrals to a variety of local services.

Extensive post-test support services were delivered to individuals who tested positive. These included individual counseling, information sharing sessions, support groups, coping effectiveness workshops and/or stigma reduction workshops.

The UCSF Center for AIDS Prevention Studies served as the Intervention Core for the multisite study. The Intervention Core was responsible for the actual implementation of the different components over the 36-month duration of the trial.

For the successful implementation of a trial based upon community mobilization, a key element was to create and sustain a supportive environment in the community.

At the time Project Accept started, many communities had little or no access to HIV testing and stigma was pervasive.

“We built strong relationships with community leaders and elders, which was essential in rural settings. We also engaged the early adopters of the intervention as community outreach volunteers. Living in the community and accessible to the community for questions, they also provided us with feedback as to what the community was thinking and that allowed us to adapt the intervention to better fit each community,” said Gertrude Khumalo-Sakutukwa, MSSW, MMS, director of the Intervention Core and research specialist at the UCSF Center for AIDS Prevention Studies.

David Celentano from Johns Hopkins University, Michael Sweat from the Medical University of South Carolina and Thomas J. Coates from UCLA were co-principal investigators of the trial. Sten Vermund and Wafaa El-Sadr are the principal investigators of the HIV Prevention Trials Network.

Project Accept was funded by the U.S. National Institute of Mental Health and through the HIV Prevention Trials Network as HPTN 043 by the Division of AIDS of the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and by the Office of AIDS of the U.S. National Institutes of Health.

The UCSF Center for AIDS Prevention Studies is affiliated with the AIDS Research Institute (ARI) at UCSF.

UCSF ARI houses hundreds of scientists and dozens of programs throughout UCSF and affiliated labs and institutions, making ARI one of the largest AIDS research entities in the world.


Further Information
Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 2,500+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More Than 3,700+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

Agricultural Intervention Improves HIV Outcomes
A multifaceted farming intervention can reduce food insecurity while improving HIV outcomes in patients in Kenya, according to a randomized, controlled trial led by researchers at UC San Francisco.
Thursday, August 20, 2015
How Early Childhood Vaccination Reduces Leukemia Risk
Chronic infections push ‘pre-leukemia’ cells, common in newborns, into malignancy.
Thursday, May 21, 2015
Blood Test Trumps Accuracy of Standard Screening in Detecting Down Syndrome in Early Pregnancy
A blood test undertaken between 10 to 14 weeks of pregnancy may be more effective in diagnosing Down syndrome and two other less common chromosomal abnormalities than standard non-invasive screening techniques.
Thursday, April 02, 2015
Developing a Noninvasive Test for Endometriosis
UCSF researchers identify patterns of genetic activity that could help in early detection of disorder.
Monday, November 24, 2014
Environmental Carcinogens Leave Distinctive Genetic Imprints in Tumors
Chemically induced tumors bear ‘smoking gun’ traces that sharply differentiate them from genetically engineered cancers.
Thursday, November 06, 2014
Human Cancer Prognosis Is Related to Newly Identified Immune Cell
A rare population of tumor-associated “good” cells slows cancer.
Monday, October 20, 2014
Chromosome Therapy to Correct a Severe Chromosome Defect
Induced pluripotent stem cell reprogramming offers potential to correct abnormal chromosomes.
Tuesday, January 14, 2014
Type 1 Diabetes Drug Proves Effective in Clinical Trial
Drug developed by UCSF researcher shows promise for blocking advance of disease in earliest stages.
Thursday, August 08, 2013
Supreme Court Rules That Human Genes Can’t Be Patented
Most agree that the ruling reduces barriers to genetic testing and enables scientists to further genetic research and share data aimed ultimately at preventing and curing disease.
Friday, June 14, 2013
UCSF Medical Center Publishes First Sustainability Report
Report documents a variety of initiatives underway for constructing green buildings, conserving energy and water, offering sustainable food and creating systems to divert waste.
Friday, April 12, 2013
Stem Cell Survival Strategy Is Key to Blood and Immune System Health
Stem cells of the aging bone marrow recycle their own molecules to survive and keep replenishing the blood and immune systems as the body ages.
Monday, February 18, 2013
Scientists Identify Key Biological Mechanism in Multiple Sclerosis
Imaging study finds potential new target to combat disease.
Tuesday, December 04, 2012
Researchers Identify Protein Key in Proliferation of Lymphoma Cells
Inhibiting PERK protein could reduce formation of cancerous tumors.
Thursday, November 29, 2012
Multiple Sclerosis ‘Immune Exchange’ Between Brain and Blood is Uncovered
UCSF finding of movement by disease-causing B cells gives hope for new treatments and diagnostics.
Thursday, November 22, 2012
UCSF Receives $2 Million to Advance UC-Wide Biobanking Initiative
Goal of the project is to develop an ethical, efficient and sustainable system for obtaining, processing and sharing biospecimens and data.
Thursday, November 15, 2012
Scientific News
The Changing Tides of the In Vitro Diagnostics Market
With the increasing focus in personalized medicine, diagnostics plays a crucial role in patient monitoring.
LaVision BioTec Reports on the Neuro Research on the Human Brain After Trauma
Company reports on the work of Dr Ali Ertürk from the Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research at LMU Munich.
NIH Study Shows No Benefit of Omega-3 Supplements for Cognitive Decline
Research was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
Less May Be More in Slowing Cholera Epidemics
Mathematical model shows more cases may be prevented and more lives saved when using one dose of cholera vaccine instead of recommended two doses.
Investigating the Vape
Expert independent review concludes that e-cigarettes have potential to help smokers quit.
NIH Launches Human RSV Study
Study aims to understand infection in healthy adults to aid development of RSV medicines, vaccines.
Researchers Discover Synthesis of a New Nanomaterial
Interdisciplinary team creates biocomposite for first time using physiological conditions.
Poor Survival Rates in Leukemia Linked to Persistent Genetic Mutations
For patients with an often-deadly form of leukemia, new research suggests that lingering cancer-related mutations – detected after initial treatment with chemotherapy – are associated with an increased risk of relapse and poor survival.
Flu Remedies Help Combat E. coli Bacteria
Physiologists from the University of Zurich have now discovered why the intestinal bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) multiplies heavily and has an inflammatory effect.
Marijuana Genome Unraveled
A study by Canadian researchers is providing a clearer picture of the evolutionary history and genetic organization of cannabis, a step that could have agricultural, medical and legal implications for this valuable crop.
Scroll Up
Scroll Down
Skyscraper Banner

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
2,500+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
3,700+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FREE!