Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Technology
Networks
Scientific Communities
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

NYSCF Scientists Create Personalized Bone Substitutes from Skin Cells

Published: Thursday, May 09, 2013
Last Updated: Thursday, May 09, 2013
Bookmark and Share
For treatment of large bone defects and traumatic injuries.

A team of New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF) Research Institute scientists report today the generation of patient-specific bone substitutes from skin cells for repair of large bone defects. The study, led by Darja Marolt, PhD, a NYSCF-Helmsley Investigator and Giuseppe Maria de Peppo, PhD, a NYSCF Research Fellow, and published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, represents a major advance in personalized reconstructive treatments for patients with bone defects resulting from disease or trauma.

This advance will facilitate the development of customizable, three-dimensional bone grafts on-demand, matched to fit the exact needs and immune profile of a patient. Taking skin cells, the NYSCF scientists utilized an advanced technique called “reprogramming” to revert adult cells into an embryonic-like state. These induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells carry the same genetic information as the patient and they can become any of the body’s cell types.

The NYSCF team guided these iPS cells to become bone-forming progenitors and seeded the cells onto a scaffold for three-dimensional bone formation. They then placed the constructs into a device called a bioreactor, which provides nutrients, removes waste, and stimulates maturation, mimicking a natural developmental environment.

“Bone is more than a hard mineral composite, it is an active organ that constantly remodels. Blood vessels shuttle important nutrients to healthy cells and remove waste; nerves provide connection to the brain; and, bone marrow cells form new blood and immune cells,” said Marolt.

Previous studies have demonstrated the bone-forming potential from other cell sources, yet serious caveats for clinical translation remain. A patient’s own bone marrow stem cells can form bone and cartilaginous tissue, not the underlying vasculature and nerve compartments; and, embryonic stem cell derived bone may prompt an immune rejection. The NYSCF scientists chose to work with iPS cells to overcome these limitations, comparing iPS sources with embryonic stem cells and bone marrow derived cells.

“No other research group has published work on creating fully-viable, functional, threedimensional bone substitutes from human iPS cells. These results bring us closer to achieving our ultimate goal, to develop the most promising treatments for patients,” said de Peppo.

While severity varies, bone defects and injuries are currently treated with bone grafts, taken either from another part of the patient’s body or a donor bone bank, or with synthetic substitutes. None of these permit complex reconstruction, and they may elicit immune rejection or fail to integrate with surrounding connective tissues. For trauma patients, suffering from shrapnel wounds or vehicular injury, these traditional treatments provide limited functional and cosmetic improvement.

After a comprehensive in vitro analysis of the generated bone, the NYSCF team assessed stability when transplanted in an animal model to address a major concern for iPS-based cell therapies. Undifferentiated iPS cells can form teratomas, a type of tumor. The iPS cellderived bone substitutes were implanted under the skin of immunocompromised mice. After 12 weeks, the explanted constructs matured and showed no malignancies but complete maturation of bone tissue, while blood vessel cells began to integrate along the grafts. These results indicate the stability of the bone substitutes.

The scientists caution that although these results represent a major advance, further research is necessary before skin cell-derived bone grafts reach patients. Next steps include protocol optimization and the successful growth of blood vessels within the bone.

“Following from these findings, we will be able to create tailored bone grafts, on demand, for patients without any immune rejection issues,” said Susan L. Solomon, CEO of NYSCF. “This is not a good approach, it is the best approach to repair devastating damage or defects.”

Beyond potential therapeutic relevance, these adaptive bone substitutes may be implemented to model bone development and different pathologies. Analysis could enrich current understanding and identify potential drug targets.

Other contributors to the study include: Dr. David Kahler, Dr. Linshan Shang, and Dana Alsaman of The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute; and Dr. Ivan Marcos Campos and Dr. Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic of Columbia University.


Further Information

Join For Free

Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 2,900+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More Than 4,200+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

Human Stem Cells Used to Elucidate Mechanisms of Beta-Cell Failure in Diabetes
Mechanisms that impair insulin production in diabetes identified using a human stem cell model of Wolfram syndrome, a rare form of diabetes.
Tuesday, November 19, 2013
Scientific News
Food Triggers Creation of Regulatory T Cells
IBS researchers document how normal diet establishes immune tolerance conditions in the small intestine.
Light Signals from Living Cells
Fluorescent protein markers delivered under high pressure.
Counting Cancer-busting Oxygen Molecules
Researchers from the Centre for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP), an Australian Research Centre of Excellence, have shown that nanoparticles used in combination with X-rays, are a viable method for killing cancer cells deep within the living body.
Therapeutic Approach Gives Hope for Multiple Myeloma
A new therapeutic approach tested by a team from Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital (CIUSSS-EST, Montreal) and the University of Montreal gives promising results for the treatment of multiple myeloma, a cancer of the bone marrow currently considered incurable with conventional chemotherapy and for which the average life expectancy is about 6 or 7 years.
Cellular 'Relief Valve'
A team led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) has solved a long-standing mystery in cell biology by showing essentially how a key “relief-valve” in cells does its job.
Genomic Signature Shared by Five Types of Cancer
National Institutes of Health researchers have identified a striking signature in tumor DNA that occurs in five different types of cancer.
Protein Protects Against Flu in Mice
The engineered molecule doesn’t provoke inflammation and may hail a new class of antivirals.
Cat Stem Cell Therapy Gives Humans Hope
By the time Bob the cat came to the UC Davis veterinary hospital, he had used up most of his nine lives.
Crowdfunding the Fight Against Cancer
From budding social causes to groundbreaking businesses to the next big band, crowdfunding has helped connect countless worthy projects with like-minded people willing to support their efforts, even in small ways. But could crowdfunding help fight cancer?
Switch Lets Salmonella Fight, Evade Immune System
Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have discovered a molecular regulator that allows salmonella bacteria to switch from actively causing disease to lurking in a chronic but asymptomatic state called a biofilm.
Scroll Up
Scroll Down
Skyscraper Banner

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
2,900+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
4,200+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FOR FREE!