Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Technology
Networks
Scientific Communities
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

The Genome’s 3D Structure Shapes how Genes are Expressed

Published: Wednesday, June 26, 2013
Last Updated: Wednesday, June 26, 2013
Bookmark and Share
Scientists bring new insights to our understanding of the three-dimensional structure of the genome.

Roughly 3 metres of DNA is tightly folded into the nucleus of every cell in our body. This folding allows some genes to be ‘expressed’, or activated, while excluding others.

Dr Tim Mercer and Professor John Mattick from Sydney’s Garvan Institute of Medical Research and Professor John Stamatoyannopoulos from Seattle’s University of Washington analysed the genome’s 3D structure, at high resolution.

Genes are made up of  ‘exons’ and ‘introns’ – the former being the sequences that code for protein and are expressed, and the latter being stretches of noncoding DNA in-between. As the genes are copied, or ‘transcribed’, from DNA into RNA, the intron sequences are cut or ‘spliced’ out and the remaining exons are strung together to form a sequence that encodes a protein. Depending on which exons are strung together, the same gene can generate different proteins.

Using vast amounts of data from the ENCODE project*, Dr Tim Mercer and colleagues have inferred the folding of the genome, finding that even within a gene, selected exons are easily exposed.

“Imagine a long and immensely convoluted grape vine, its twisted branches presenting some grapes to be plucked easily, while concealing others beyond reach,” said Dr Mercer. “At the same time, imagine a lazy fruit picker only picking the grapes within easy reach.

“The same principle applies in the genome. Specific genes and even specific exons, are placed within easy reach by folding.”

“Over the last few years, we’ve been starting to appreciate just how the folding of the genome helps determine how it’s expressed and regulated,”

“This study provides the first indication that the three-dimensional structure of the genome can influence the splicing of genes.”

“We can infer that the genome is folded in such a way that the promoter region — the sequence that initiates transcription of a gene — is located alongside exons, and they are all presented to transcription machinery.”

“This supports a new way of looking at things, one that the genome is folded around transcription machinery, rather than the other way around. Those genes that come in contact with the transcription machinery get transcribed, while those parts which loop away are ignored.”


Further Information

Join For Free

Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 3,200+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More Than 4,600+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

The Switch That Might Tame The Most Aggressive Of Breast Cancers
Garvan researchers have found that so-called ‘triple-negative breast cancers’ are two distinct diseases that likely originate from different cell types. They have also found a gene that drives the aggressive disease, and hope to find a way to ‘switch it off’.
Monday, March 30, 2015
Epigenetic Signatures that Differentiate Triple-Negative Breast Cancers
Australian researchers have identified epigenetic ‘signatures’ that could help clinicians tell the difference between highly aggressive and more benign forms of triple-negative breast cancer.
Tuesday, February 03, 2015
Powerful Tool Promises To Change The Way Scientists View Proteins
Aquaria, a publicly available web resource that streamlines and simplifies the process of gleaning insight from 3D protein structures, is fast, easy-to-use and contains twice as many models as all other similar resources combined.
Friday, January 30, 2015
Nanotechnology Helps Track and Improve Drug Action in Pancreatic Cancer
Scientists have been able to show ways in which we can markedly improve drug targeting of solid tumours, using ‘biosensors’ along with imaging techniques.
Wednesday, June 26, 2013
Insight into the Dazzling Impact of Insulin in Cells
Australian scientists have charted the path of insulin action in cells in precise detail like never before.
Tuesday, May 28, 2013
Scientific News
Platelets are the Pathfinders for Leukocyte Extravasation During Inflammation
Findings from the study could help in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory pathologies.
ASMS 2016: Targeting Mass Spectrometry Tools for the Masses
The expanding application range of MS in life sciences, food, energy, and health sciences research was highlighted at this year's ASMS meeting in San Antonio, Texas.
Benchtop Automation Trends
Gain a better understanding of current interest in and future deployment of benchtop automated systems.
Manufactured Stem Cells to Advance Clinical Research
Clinical-grade cell line will enable development of new therapies and accelerate early-stage clinical research.
Dengue Virus Exposure May Amplify Zika Infection
Researchers at Imperial College London have found that the previous exposure to the dengue virus may increase the potency of Zika infection.
Gender Determination in Forensic Investigations
This study investigated the effectiveness of lip print analysis as a tool in gender determination.
Identifying Novel Types of Forensic Markers in Degraded DNA
Scientists have tried to verify the nucleosome protection hypothesis by discovering STRs within nucleosome core regions, using whole genome sequencing.
Proteins in Blood of Heart Disease Patients May Predict Adverse Events
Nine-protein test shown superior to conventional assessments of risk.
Higher Frequency of Huntington's Disease Mutations Discovered
University of Aberdeen study shows that the gene change that causes Huntington's disease is much more common than previously thought.
Starving Stem Cells May Enable Scientists To Build Better Blood Vessels
Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine have uncovered how changes in metabolism of human embryonic stem cells help coax them to mature into specific cell types — and may improve their function in engineered organs or tissues.
Scroll Up
Scroll Down
Skyscraper Banner

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
3,200+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
4,600+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FOR FREE!