Satellite Banner
Technology
Networks
Scientific Communities
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

Between B Cells and T Cells

Published: Friday, July 26, 2013
Last Updated: Friday, July 26, 2013
Bookmark and Share
Transcription factor EBF1 reminds cells who they are.

Mature cells develop through a number of immature stages. During this process, they must remember the specialisation they are committed to. For immune system B cells, Rudolf Grosschedl of the Max Planck Institute of Immunobiology and Epigenetics and his team have discovered that the transcription factor EBF1 is crucial for B cells to remember who they are. When the researchers switched off the transcription factor, the cells lost their previous identity and developed into T cells. Unlike most other cell types, B cells have a characteristic footprint in their genetic makeup and this allowed the researchers to identify the origin of each individual cell.

During the transition from stem cells to becoming a functional part of the immune system, cells must undergo a number of specialisation stages where they have the opportunity to decide between pathways leading to the various cell types found in the blood. It is also important that once they have chosen a specialisation, they remain committed to it.

Immune system B and T cells come from the same stem cell. Rudolf Grosschedl and his colleagues were able to prove as early as 1995 that the transcription factor EBF1 is active only in some of these cells and this induces their development into B cells. Until now, however, it was unclear whether EBF1 also played a part in constantly reminding the B cells of their identity.

B cells usually die when EBF1 is switched off. In collaboration with researchers from the University of Freiburg, the Max Planck researchers collected mouse B cells at a late stage of their development and transferred them to mice lacking an immune system. They then switched off the EBF1 gene in the transplanted B cells. After three months, they checked whether immune cells were still present in the mice. “We thought that the chance of this transfer enabling the cells to remain alive was slim, so we were very pleased that it worked,” says Robert Nechanitzky, a doctoral student and first author of the study. The researchers did indeed find immune cells, but the B cells had forgotten their previous identity. In their place were T cells and natural killer cells, which normally would not be found in these animals.

To find out whether the T and natural killer cells actually had come from the transplanted B cells, the researchers looked for the specific genetic footprint of B cells. Unlike most other cells in the body, B cells change their DNA sequence during their development. To produce antibodies, they bring together several gene segments by cutting and joining their DNA to create a sequence able to code for a functional antibody. The researchers found precisely this typical genetic footprint of B cells in both T cells and natural killer cells. They concluded that after the transcription factor EBF1 had been switched off, the transplanted B cells had forgotten their specialisation and had turned into alternate cell types. Until now, it was only known that the absence of the transcription factor Pax5 had such an effect. “We believe that the two proteins regulate different aspects of cell type specification. EBF1 primarily represses genes that would initiate an alternative programme of development in the B cells, while Pax5 ensures that they no longer react to signals that would enable them to select a different specialisation,” says Grosschedl.

The Freiburg-based researchers now want to understand the exact molecular interactions in the cells and better define the network of factors involved. In the long term, they hope this knowledge will allow cells to be reprogrammed, for example in the case of a pathological loss of a cell type.


Further Information

Join For Free

Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 3,900+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More Than 5,300+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

Hereditary Diseases: Price of Infection Protection
Continuous adaptation to new pathogens has increased the diversity of our immune genes but results in the persistence of harmful gene variants.
Monday, September 05, 2016
Molecular Monkey Arranges X-Chromosome Activation
Protein moulds RNA to ensure that activating factors can hold on to it.
Friday, July 26, 2013
Scientific News
Big Genetics in BC: The American Society for Human Genetics 2016 Meeting
Themes at this year's meeting ranged from the verification, validation, and sharing of data, to the translation of laboratory findings into actionable clinical results.
Stem Cells in Drug Discovery
Potential Source of Unlimited Human Test Cells, but Roadblocks Remain.
Cancer Genetics: Key to Diagnosis, Therapy
When applied judiciously, cancer genetics directs caregivers to the right drug at the right time, while sparing patients of unnecessary or harmful treatments.
BGI Sequences Gingko Tree, Revealing Large, Highly Repetitive Genome
Researchers at BGI have sequenced the more than 10-gigabase ginkgo genome to find a high number of repetitive sequences as well as a number of gene clusters that appear to be involved in defense mechanisms.
Survey of New York City Soil Uncovers Medicine-Making Microbes
Microbes have long been an invaluable source of new drugs. And to find more, we may have to look no further than the ground beneath our feet.
Accelerating the Detection of Foodborne Bacterial Outbreaks
The speed of diagnosis of foodborne bacterial outbreaks could be improved by a new technique developed by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology.
Making Personalized Medicine a Reality
Groundbreaking technique developed at McMaster University is helping to pave the way for advances in personalized medicine.
Scientists Identify Unique Genomic Features in Testicular Cancer
The findings may shed light on factors in other cancers that influence their sensitivity to chemotherapy.
Top 10 Life Science Innovations of 2016
2016 has seen the release of some truly innovative products. To help you digest these developments, The Scientist have listed their top picks for the year.
BioCision Forms MedCision
The new company will focus on technologies for the management and automation of vital clinical processes.
Scroll Up
Scroll Down
Skyscraper Banner

SELECTBIO Market Reports
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
3,900+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
5,300+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FOR FREE!