Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Scientific Communities
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article

New Genetic Discovery Could Reduce the Guesswork in Drug Dosing

Published: Friday, October 04, 2013
Last Updated: Friday, October 04, 2013
Bookmark and Share
Findings likely to improve how patients are prescribed one in four clinically used drugs.

The discovery of genetic differences affecting up to a third of the population could take the guesswork out of prescribing the correct dose of 25 percent of drugs currently on the market, researchers say.

The scientists found two genetic variants that alter the activity level of an enzyme responsible for processing, or metabolizing, drugs ranging from the painkiller codeine to the breast cancer drug tamoxifen.

The Ohio State University researchers who found these differences say that pending additional research, the variants are good candidates for inclusion in an existing biomarker test that guides drug dosing.

The current test is designed to determine the enzyme’s activity level, or expression, to predict whether a patient will fall into one of four categories: poor, intermediate, extensive or ultra-rapid metabolizer. Metabolism speed affects how much medicine a patient needs.
But there are limits to the existing test: The current biomarker panel is based on variants that have been associated with how patients respond to different doses of drugs.

The researchers who found these previously unidentified variants, however, have determined the specific effects that the variants have on drug metabolism. One reduces the enzyme’s activity twofold by turning off a function of its gene, and the other is located in an enhancer region of the gene, meaning it increases the enzyme’s expression between two- and fourfold.

“If you don’t consider these two variants, the current biomarker panel can cause incorrect dosing,” said senior author Wolfgang Sadee, professor and chair of pharmacology and director of the Center for Pharmacogenomics at Ohio State. “The better the test, the more value it has. Adding these variants to the panel would make the test more predictive and robust with respect to application in the clinic.”

Ohio State has applied for a patent on the addition of these variants to a clinical biomarker test.

The research is published online in the journal Human Molecular Genetics.

The study included a clinical trial of 164 children, about one-third of whom were African American. The results show that these two variants are common in both Caucasians and African Americans, and confirmed that the variants influence how patients metabolize the cough suppressant dextromethorphan.

Being able to apply this testing to more than one ethnic group is significant, Sadee said, because most current dosing decisions are made based on genetic findings in only whites.

The findings suggested that about one-third of people would be expected to have lower enzyme activity, and therefore slower, or intermediate, drug metabolism – not so low that they are poor metabolizers. Another 6 percent would have higher enzyme activity and be categorized as ultra-rapid metabolizers. Only by testing for these variants would clinicians know for sure.

The variants were found by lead author Danxin Wang, a research scientist and adjunct associate professor in pharmacology at Ohio State. They are called single-nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs (pronounced “snips”).

Each gene contains two alternative forms – called alleles – that are functionally identical in most people. However, in some cases, the activity level, or expression, of an allele can differ from its partner allele in a single gene. That difference – the genetic variant, or SNP – affects the function of the protein or enzyme produced by that gene.

Wang used liver tissue samples from Caucasians to conduct the analyses that identified where these two functional variants are located on the CYP2D6 gene. The clinical trial testing these variants’ effects against dextromethorphan is just the beginning – the researchers hope to expand these trials with multiple drugs and eventually enter clinical biomarker tests.

“The current panel can determine whether an individual is a poor or ultra-rapid metabolizer. The SNPs we found will more precisely predict whether an individual is in the ultra-rapid or intermediate metabolic range,” Wang said. “The poor metabolizers are well-defined by the current panel with variants with no enzyme activity at all.”

A poor metabolizer is likely to experience high toxicity from medications processed by this enzyme, or get minimal or no benefit at all if a drug such as codeine needs to be activated by it. Ultra-rapid metabolizers, on the other hand, may not benefit from drugs processed by the enzyme or suffer adverse reactions from drugs that need it for activation. Metabolizer status has pronounced effects on treatment outcomes and cost of therapy.

“If you could give a drug and get an immediate response, then that in itself would be a marker for the drug’s effect. But there is no immediate response for many drugs,” Sadee said. “Having a pharmacogenomics marker test that’s viable and useful could predict when caution is needed in prescribing drugs.”

In the case of antidepressants or antipsychotics, for example, with delayed clinical effect, an ultra-rapid metabolizer would have to take the drug for weeks before finding out that a drug isn’t having any effect, while a poor metabolizer is likely to have toxic side effects. And with codeine, which is converted into morphine in the body, an ultra-rapid metabolizer could inadvertently overdose on morphine by taking too much codeine.

The Ohio State pharmacogenomics group is among the few in the world pursuing hard-to-find genetic variants that significantly alter biological functions. For the past 30 years, scientists studying genetic variants have focused on genetic variants that change enzyme function by altering the encoded amino acid sequence.

Sadee’s lab, however, focuses on variants that are harder to detect and analyze because they have no direct role in determining the protein sequence; they exist in deeper and often overlooked regions of genes. Sadee has designed a technique to determine variant functions based on measurements of how much messenger RNA (mRNA), a carrier of genetic information, each specific allele expresses – an activity that occurs before amino acids are assembled.

“We’re finding now that in 90 percent of cases, it would appear that the SNP working at the protein level is not the one that affects function – instead it’s the SNP that affects mRNA expression,” Sadee said. “It turns out SNPs in the middle of nowhere – in regions formerly called junk DNA – are actually in the middle of something.”

Further Information
Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 2,800+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More Than 4,000+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters

Sign In

Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

Drug May Prevent Life-Threatening Muscle Loss in Advanced Cancers
New data describes how an experimental drug can stop life-threatening muscle wasting (cachexia) associated with advanced cancers and restore muscle health.
Wednesday, November 25, 2015
How the Human Immune System Keeps TB at Bay
Scientists create model of host, bacteria behavior in latent TB infection.
Tuesday, March 31, 2015
HPV Can Damage Genes and Chromosomes Directly, Sequencing Study Shows
This study shows that HPV can damage genes and chromosomes directly, revealing a new way by which HPV might contribute to cancer development.
Tuesday, November 12, 2013
Loss of MicroRNA Decoy Might Contribute to Development of Soft-Tissue Sarcoma
Knowledge of this mechanism could guide the design of new, more effective treatments.
Thursday, August 08, 2013
Nano Drug Crosses Blood-Brain Tumor Barrier
This laboratory study shows that a nanotechnology drug called SapC-DOPS crosses barrier and targets brain-tumor cells and retards growth of tumor blood vessels.
Monday, July 22, 2013
Study Shows How the Nanog Protein Promotes Growth of Head and Neck Cancer
A protein called Nanog helps the renewal of healthy embryonic stem cells and promotes cancer stem cell proliferation in head and neck cancer.
Monday, June 24, 2013
Scientific News
High Throughput Mass Spectrometry-Based Screening Assay Trends
Dr John Comley provides an insight into HT MS-based screening with a focus on future user requirements and preferences.
How a Genetic Locus Protects Adult Blood-Forming Stem Cells
Mammalian imprinted Gtl2 protects adult hematopoietic stem cells by restricting metabolic activity in the cells' mitochondria.
Genetic Basis of Fatal Flu Side Effect Discovered
A group of people with fatal H1N1 flu died after their viral infections triggered a deadly hyperinflammatory disorder in susceptible individuals with gene mutations linked to the overactive immune response, according to a recent study.
New Tech Vastly Improves CRISPR/Cas9 Accuracy
A new CRISPR/Cas9 technology developed by scientists at UMass Medical School is precise enough to surgically edit DNA at nearly any genomic location, while avoiding potentially harmful off-target changes typically seen in standard CRISPR gene editing techniques.
The MaxSignal Colistin ELISA Test Kit from Bioo Scientific
Kit can help prevent the antibiotic apocalypse by keeping last resort drugs out of the food supply.
"Good" Mozzie Virus Might Hold Key to Fighting Human Disease
Australian scientists have discovered a new virus carried by one of the country’s most common pest mosquitoes.
Non-Disease Proteins Kill Brain Cells
Scientists at the forefront of cutting-edge research into neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s have shown that the mere presence of protein aggregates may be as important as their form and identity in inducing cell death in brain tissue.
Closing the Loop on an HIV Escape Mechanism
Research team finds that protein motions regulate virus infectivity.
New Class of RNA Tumor Suppressors Identified
Two short, “housekeeping” RNA molecules block cancer growth by binding to an important cancer-associated protein called KRAS. More than a quarter of all human cancers are missing these RNAs.
Potential Treatment for Life-Threatening Viral Infections Revealed
The findings point to new therapies for Dengue, West Nile and Ebola.
Scroll Up
Scroll Down
Skyscraper Banner

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
2,800+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
4,000+ scientific videos