Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Technology
Networks
Scientific Communities
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

The Emergence of New Crop Pests: Genetics in Action

Published: Thursday, November 14, 2013
Last Updated: Thursday, November 14, 2013
Bookmark and Share
Scientists discover the genetic mechanisms that allow aphids to adapt to a new host plant and provide natural resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides.

Insect host shifts are important because they may be a first step in the evolution of new species and can create new pests of agriculturally important crops. A barrier to many potential insect host shifts are the secondary metabolites or allelochemicals many plants produce in order to defend themselves from plant feeding (herbivorous) pests like aphids. Consequently, insect pests can only be successful in using such plant species as food if they develop mechanisms to overcome sensitivity to the defense compounds that a plant is releasing.

Identifying the initial genetic changes involved in this process has proved elusive. Rothamsted Research scientists, who receive strategic funding from the BBSRC, in collaboration with researchers from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and Bayer CropScience AG in Germany, have characterised novel genetic changes that underlie an insect host shift and the emergence of a new subspecies of crop pest with natural resistant to pesticides. The study is published today in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

The peach potato aphid (Myzus persicae) is a major crop pest, one of the most common greenfly pests within the UK and globally. It can cause substantial crop yield losses through the transmission of up to 120 distinct plant viruses and/or directly through feeding and sucking the sap of plants. A subspecies of peach potato aphid (Myzus percicae nicotianae) has evolved to feed and survive on tobacco plants. Aphids of this subspecies show reduced sensitivity to the secondary metabolite nicotine, which is a potent natural insecticide produced by tobacco. Interestingly, these aphids also show reduced sensitivity to neonicotinoids a class of synthetic insecticides. This study aimed to identify how aphids manage to overcome the toxic effects of the tobacco-produced nicotine and understand how this relates to resistance to neonicotinoids.

Dr Chris Bass of Rothamsted Research, who is funded by a fellowship from the BBSRC, and led the study said: "We are excited that for the first time we have been able to characterise the genetic mutations involved in the initial steps of the host shift of the peach potato aphid to tobacco. We found that a detoxification enzyme called CYP6CY3, which is naturally present in all aphids, is responsible for the metabolism of nicotine to less toxic compounds. However, for this process to occur at significant levels that allow survival of aphids that feed on tobacco plants the gene producing this enzyme needs to be present in many more copies than the normal two copies, up to 100 copies in the most resistant aphids.

"In addition to the gene amplification we have also been able to show that changes in the part of the gene that gives information as to when and where the enzyme should be made (i.e. the regulatory region of CYP6CY3) contribute to the overexpression of the gene. Together these two mechanisms work in concert to produce high levels of the enzyme which breakdowns nicotine and has also pre-adapted tobacco-adapted races to resist man-made insecticides".

Professor Lin Field of Rothamsted Research said: "The findings of this study are very exciting because they provide novel insights into the fundamental evolutionary processes that have driven adaptation in an aphid and similar mechanisms may be employed by other insect species. Additionally, we now have further understanding of the molecular mechanisms that can drive insecticide resistance and this can be utilised when developing pest management strategies."


Further Information

Join For Free

Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 3,300+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More Than 4,900+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

UK-Brazil Wheat Research Projects Awarded £4M
£4M investment from BBSRC and Embrapa has been awarded to four Brazil-UK partnerships.
Wednesday, July 27, 2016
Protein Boosts Rice Yield by 54%
Over-expression of a natural protein in rice plants led to a 54% increase in crop yield and 40% increase in nitrogen-use efficiency.
Wednesday, July 27, 2016
A New £81.6M Food and Health Research Centre
The Quadram Institute is the name of the new centre for food and health research to be located at the heart of the Norwich Research Park, one of Europe’s largest single-site concentrations of research in food, health and environmental sciences.
Wednesday, February 17, 2016
Genome-Editing Position Statement
A group of leading UK research organisations has today issued an initial joint statement in support of the continued use of CRISPR-Cas9 and other genome-editing techniques in preclinical research.
Monday, September 07, 2015
Expanding the DNA Alphabet: 'Extra' DNA Base Found to be Stable in Mammals
A rare DNA base, previously thought to be a temporary modification, has been shown to be stable in mammalian DNA, suggesting that it plays a key role in cellular function.
Thursday, June 25, 2015
Global Food Security (GFS) Develops New Funding Programme
New programme of research to tackle resilience of the food system.
Tuesday, June 02, 2015
£4M to Fund Important Food Crops from BBSRC and NERC
Research projects designed with industry partners to maximize impact.
Tuesday, June 02, 2015
Controlling Leaf Blotch Disease In Wheat
Scientists have found a genetic mechanism that could stop the spread of a "devastating" disease threatening wheat crops.
Thursday, February 05, 2015
Rising Temperatures Predicted to Lower Wheat Yields
An international consortium of researchers has used big data sets to predict the effects climate change on global wheat yields.
Friday, December 26, 2014
New Test For Detecting Horse Meat
New test compares differences in chemical compositions of the fat found in meats.
Tuesday, December 02, 2014
UK And India Collaborate On Future-Proof Crops
Drought-tolerant tomatoes, improved wheat and grass pea could provide crops for the future.
Friday, November 28, 2014
Drugs Used to Treat Lung Disease Work With the Body Clock
Scientists from The University of Manchester have discovered why medication to treat asthma and pneumonia can become ineffective.
Thursday, August 14, 2014
Researchers Use ‘Big Data’ Approach to Map the Relationships Between Human and Animal Diseases
EID2 database used to prevent and tackle disease outbreaks around the globe.
Thursday, July 17, 2014
TGAC at the Forefront of Next Generation Sequencing Capability
The Genome Analysis Centre adds two Illumina HiSeq 2500 machines to its platform suite.
Thursday, June 26, 2014
UK Diet and Health Research Awarded £4M
Funding awarded to six projects investigating diet and health to enable the food and drink industry to meet the needs of UK consumers.
Wednesday, June 25, 2014
Scientific News
Liquid Biopsies: Miracle Diagnostic or Next New Fad?
Thanks to the development of highly specific gene-amplification and sequencing technologies liquid biopsies access more biomarkers relevant to more cancers than ever before.
JPK NanoWizard® Applied to a Wide Range of Research
The NanoWizard® AFM from JPK is applied for interdisciplinary research at the University of South Australia for applications including smart wound healing and how plants can protect themselves from toxins.
Mutations in DNA-Repair Genes Found in Advanced Prostate Cancers
New findings indicate that nearly 12% of male advanced prostate cancer sufferers have inherited mutation in DNA-repair genes.
Protein Boosts Rice Yield by 54%
Over-expression of a natural protein in rice plants led to a 54% increase in crop yield and 40% increase in nitrogen-use efficiency.
Ice Bucket Challenge Instrumental in Gene Discovery
Donations from the ALS Ice Bucket Chellenge allowed for the largest-ever study of inherited ALS, which identified a new ALS gene.
Genetic Variability in Cell Bank Lots
Researchers working with cancer cells from the same cell bank acquired at the same time, found that the cells were genetically different.
Triple-Action Therapy Patch Shows Promise
Patch that delivers drug, gene, and light-based therapy to tumor sites shows promising results in mice.
Soil Nitrogen Age Important for Precision Agriculture
Calculating the age of nitrogen in corn and soybean fields could lead to improved fertilizer application techniques.
Targeting Autoimmunity
Researchers have developed a strategy to treat a rare autoimmune disease which could lead to treatments of other autoimmune diseases.
Molecule May Affect Gaucher, Parkinson's Disease
Research has identified a molecule that restores activity of a dysfunctional enzyme linked to Gaucher and Parkinson's disease.
Scroll Up
Scroll Down
Skyscraper Banner

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
3,300+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
4,900+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FOR FREE!