Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Technology
Networks
Scientific Communities
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

Non-coding DNA Implicated in Type 2 Diabetes

Published: Monday, January 13, 2014
Last Updated: Monday, January 13, 2014
Bookmark and Share
New study demonstrates how regulatory elements can influence people's risk of disease.

Variations in non-coding sections of the genome might be important contributors to type 2 diabetes risk, according to a new study.

DNA sequences that don't encode proteins were once dismissed as "junk DNA", but scientists are increasingly discovering that some regions are important for controlling which genes are switched on.

The new study, published in Nature Genetics, is one of the first to show how such regions, called regulatory elements, can influence people's risk of disease.

Type 2 diabetes affects over 300 million people worldwide. Genetic factors have long been known to have an important role in determining a person's risk of type 2 diabetes, alongside other factors such as body weight, diet and age.

Many studies have identified regions of the genome where variations are linked to diabetes risk, but the function of many of these regions is unknown, making it difficult for scientists to glean insights into how and why the disease develops. Only around two per cent of the genome is made up of genes: the sequences that contain code for making proteins. Most of the remainder is shrouded in mystery.

"Non-coding DNA, or junk DNA as it is sometimes known, is the dark matter of the genome. We're only just beginning to unravel what it does," said leading author Professor Jorge Ferrer, a Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator from the Department of Medicine at Imperial College London.

In the new study scientists mapped the regulatory elements that orchestrate gene activity in the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar.

In type 2 diabetes, the tissues become less responsive to insulin, resulting in blood sugar levels being too high. Most people can compensate when this happens by producing more insulin, but in people with type 2 diabetes, the pancreas cannot cope with this increased demand.

"The cells that produce insulin appear to be programmed to behave differently in people with type 2 diabetes," said co-author Mark McCarthy, a Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator at the University of Oxford. "This study provides some important clues to the mechanisms which are disturbed in the earliest stages of the development of type 2 diabetes, and may point the way to novel ways of treating and preventing the disease."

The team identified genome sequences that drive gene activity in insulin-producing cells specifically. They found that these sequences are located in clusters, and that genetic variants known to be linked to diabetes risk are also found in these clusters.

"Many people have small DNA variants in such regulatory elements, and these variants affect gene expression in the cells that produce insulin. This knowledge will allow us to understand the detailed mechanisms whereby specific DNA variants predispose to diabetes," said Professor Ferrer.


Further Information

Join For Free

Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 3,000+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More Than 4,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

The Brain on LSD: New Scans Show How the Drug Affects the Brain
Researchers at Imperial College London have visualised the effects of LSD on the brain.
Tuesday, April 12, 2016
Cost of Diabetes Hits 825 Billion Dollars a Year
The global cost of diabetes is now 825 billion dollars per year, according to the largest ever study of diabetes levels across the world.
Thursday, April 07, 2016
World's Obese Population Hits 640 Million
More than one in ten men and one in seven women across the globe are now obese, according to the world's biggest obesity study.
Friday, April 01, 2016
Interactive Maps Reveal Global Obesity
World’s obese population hits 640 million, according to largest ever study.
Friday, April 01, 2016
Switching Off Cancers' Ability to Spread
A key molecule in breast and lung cancer cells can help switch off the cancers' ability to spread around the body.
Tuesday, March 22, 2016
Bacterial Motors Unveiled
Nanoscopic 3D imaging has revealed how different bacteria have geared their tiny propeller motors for a wide range of swimming abilities.
Thursday, March 17, 2016
New App Advises and Reminds Pregnant Women About Vaccinations
Researchers at Imperial College London have developed a new app to guide and remind pregnant women about vaccines recommended during pregnancy.
Saturday, March 12, 2016
Infant Milk Formula Does Not Reduce Risk of Eczema and Allergies, Says New Study
Researchers at Imperial College London have found a type of baby formula does not reduce allergy risk - despite previous claims to the contrary.
Wednesday, March 09, 2016
Too Many Avoidable Errors in Patient Care, Says Report
Researchers at Imperial College London have launched the reports in which provide evidence on the current state of patient safety and how it could be improved the future.
Tuesday, March 08, 2016
Big and Small Numbers are Processed in Different Sides of the Brain
Researchers at Imperial College London have suggested that the small numbers are processed in the right side of the brain, while large numbers are processed in the left side of the brain.
Saturday, March 05, 2016
Fossil Find Reveals Just How Big Carnivorous Dinosaur May Have Grown
Researchers at imperial college London have said that an unidentified fossilised bone in a museum has revealed the size of a fearsome Abelisaur and may solve a hundred-year-old puzzle.
Tuesday, March 01, 2016
Bee Brains as You Have Never Seen them Before
Researchers at Imperial College London have found in new study that the Bumblebee brains in unprecedented detail using new techniques in micro-CT imaging.
Thursday, February 25, 2016
Iron in the Blood Could Cause Cell Damage
Concentrations of iron similar to those delivered through standard treatments can trigger DNA damage within 10 minutes, when given to cells in the laboratory.
Friday, February 12, 2016
Head Injury Patients have Protein Clumps Associated with Alzheimer’s Disease
Scientists have revealed that protein clumps associated with Alzheimer's disease are also found in the brains of people who have had a head injury.
Wednesday, February 10, 2016
Exposure to Air Pollution 30 Years Ago Associated with Increased Risk of Death
Exposure to air pollution more than 30 years ago may still affect an individual's mortality risk today, according to new research from Imperial College London.
Wednesday, February 10, 2016
Scientific News
Improving Natural Killer Cancer Therapy
Vanderbilt University researchers discover transcription factor critical for NK cell expansion. Findings could lead to increased therapeutic efficacy.
Molecular Mechanism For Generating Specific Antibody Responses Discovered
Study could spur more ways to treat autoimmune disease, develop accurate vaccines.
Monovar Drills Down Into Cancer Genome
Rice, MD Anderson develop program to ID mutations in single cancer cells.
It’s Now Easier To Go With The Flow
Rice University tool simplifies comparison of flow cytometry data for laboratories.
Autism and Cancer Share a Remarkable Number of Risk Genes
Researchers with the UC Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, MIND Institute identify more than 40 common genes.
Number Of Known Genetic Risk Factors For Endometrial Cancer Doubled
An international collaboration of researchers has identified five new gene regions that increase a woman’s risk of developing endometrial cancer, one of the most common cancers to affect women, taking the number of known gene regions associated with the disease to nine.
Genetic Variant May Help Explain Why Labradors Are Prone To Obesity
A genetic variation associated with obesity and appetite in Labrador retrievers – the UK and US’s favourite dog breed – has been identified by scientists at the University of Cambridge. The finding may explain why Labrador retrievers are more likely to become obese than dogs of other breeds.
FNIH Launches Project to Evaluate Biomarkers in Cancer Patients
Company has announced that it has launched a new project to evaluate the effectiveness of liquid biopsies as biomarkers in colorectal cancer patients.
Flowering Regulation Mechanism Discovered
Monash researchers have discovered a new mechanism that enables plants to regulate their flowering in response to raised temperatures.
Turning Skin Cells into Heart, Brain Cells
In a major breakthrough, scientists at the Gladstone Institutes transformed skin cells into heart cells and brain cells using a combination of chemicals.
Scroll Up
Scroll Down
Skyscraper Banner

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
3,000+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
4,500+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FOR FREE!