Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Technology
Networks
Scientific Communities
 
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article
  News
Return

Gut Bacteria that Protect Against Food Allergies Identified

Published: Wednesday, August 27, 2014
Last Updated: Wednesday, August 27, 2014
Bookmark and Share
Common gut bacteria prevent sensitization to allergens in a mouse model for peanut allergy, paving the way for probiotic therapies to treat food allergies.

The presence of Clostridia, a common class of gut bacteria, protects against food allergies, a new study in mice finds. By inducing immune responses that prevent food allergens from entering the bloodstream, Clostridia minimize allergen exposure and prevent sensitization -- a key step in the development of food allergies. The discovery points toward probiotic therapies for this so-far untreatable condition, report scientists from the University of Chicago, Aug 25 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Although the causes of food allergy -- a sometimes deadly immune response to certain foods -- are unknown, studies have hinted that modern hygienic or dietary practices may play a role by disturbing the body's natural bacterial composition. In recent years, food allergy rates among children have risen sharply – increasing approximately 50 percent between 1997 and 2011 -- and studies have shown a correlation to antibiotic and antimicrobial use.

"Environmental stimuli such as antibiotic overuse, high fat diets, caesarean birth, removal of common pathogens and even formula feeding have affected the microbiota with which we've co-evolved," said study senior author Cathryn Nagler, PhD, Bunning Food Allergy Professor at the University of Chicago. "Our results suggest this could contribute to the increasing susceptibility to food allergies."

To test how gut bacteria affect food allergies, Nagler and her team investigated the response to food allergens in mice. They exposed germ-free mice (born and raised in sterile conditions to have no resident microorganisms) and mice treated with antibiotics as newborns (which significantly reduces gut bacteria) to peanut allergens. Both groups of mice displayed a strong immunological response, producing significantly higher levels of antibodies against peanut allergens than mice with normal gut bacteria.

This sensitization to food allergens could be reversed, however, by reintroducing a mix of Clostridia bacteria back into the mice. Reintroduction of another major group of intestinal bacteria, Bacteroides, failed to alleviate sensitization, indicating that Clostridia have a unique, protective role against food allergens.

Closing the door

To identify this protective mechanism, Nagler and her team studied cellular and molecular immune responses to bacteria in the gut. Genetic analysis revealed that Clostridia caused innate immune cells to produce high levels of interleukin-22 (IL-22), a signaling molecule known to decrease the permeability of the intestinal lining.

Antibiotic-treated mice were either given IL-22 or were colonized with Clostridia. When exposed to peanut allergens, mice in both conditions showed reduced allergen levels in their blood, compared to controls. Allergen levels significantly increased, however, after the mice were given antibodies that neutralized IL-22, indicating that Clostridia-induced IL-22 prevents allergens from entering the bloodstream.

"We've identified a bacterial population that protects against food allergen sensitization," Nagler said. "The first step in getting sensitized to a food allergen is for it to get into your blood and be presented to your immune system. The presence of these bacteria regulates that process." She cautions, however, that these findings likely apply at a population level, and that the cause-and-effect relationship in individuals requires further study.

While complex and largely undetermined factors such as genetics greatly affect whether individuals develop food allergies and how they manifest, the identification of a bacteria-induced barrier-protective response represents a new paradigm for preventing sensitization to food. Clostridia bacteria are common in humans and represent a clear target for potential therapeutics that prevent or treat food allergies. Nagler and her team are working to develop and test compositions that could be used for probiotic therapy and have filed a provisional patent.

"It's exciting because we know what the bacteria are; we have a way to intervene," Nagler said. "There are of course no guarantees, but this is absolutely testable as a therapeutic against a disease for which there's nothing. As a mom, I can imagine how frightening it must be to worry every time your child takes a bite of food."

"Food allergies affect 15 million Americans, including one in 13 children, who live with this potentially life-threatening disease that currently has no cure," said Mary Jane Marchisotto, senior vice president of research at Food Allergy Research & Education. "We have been pleased to support the research that has been conducted by Dr. Nagler and her colleagues at the University of Chicago."

The study, "Commensal bacteria protect against food allergen sensitization," was supported by Food Allergy Research & Education (FARE) and the University of Chicago Digestive Diseases Research Core Center. Gene sequencing was conducted at the Next-Generation Sequencing Core at Argonne National Laboratory. Additional authors include Andrew T. Stefka, Taylor Feehley, Prabhanshu Tripathi, Ju Qiu, Kathy D. McCoy, Sarkis K. Mazmanian, Melissa Y. Tjota, Goo-Young Seo, Severine Cao, Betty R. Theriault, Dionysios A. Antonopoulos, Liang Zhou, Eugene B. Chang and Yang-Xin Fu.


Further Information

Join For Free

Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 4,000+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More Than 5,300+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters


Sign In



Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into TechnologyNetworks.com you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

Long-sought Genetic Model of Common Infant Leukemia Described
Researchers from the University of Chicago have created the first mouse model for Pro-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Tuesday, November 15, 2016
Including the Microbiome in Precision Medicine
Scientists suggest microbiome plays a significant enough role in human health that studies should be a part of future precision medicine initiatives.
Wednesday, November 02, 2016
Tumor Markers Reveal Lethality Of Bladder Cancers
Researchers found that detection of certain tumor cells in early stage cancers helps identify high-risk cancers.
Wednesday, October 26, 2016
Manipulation of Liquid Crystals Could Help Control Drug-Delivery Process
Computer modeling, real-world testing yields new method.
Wednesday, September 14, 2016
Liquid Crystal Manipulation Controls Drug-Delivery Process
Scientists have turned liquid crystals into a tool to control the shape of synthetic cell membranes.
Tuesday, September 13, 2016
Grad Student's Finding Enables Rapid Compound Screening
Grad student makes technical leap that could enable rapid screening of anti-cancer compounds.
Friday, August 19, 2016
From Fins to Fingers
New gene-editing methods help the mapping of cells linking fish fins and mammalian limbs.
Friday, August 19, 2016
New Technique Targets Ataxia Gene
Scientists selectively turn off the disease-causing portion of a gene that causes a severe form of ataxia.
Thursday, July 14, 2016
Organ Behaviour Manipulation Possible with New Injectable
Scientists develop injectable that could be used to stimulate nerve cells and manipulate muscle and organ behaviour.
Friday, July 08, 2016
New Microbiome Center to Merge Expertise of UChicago, MBL and Argonne
Researchers to study world of microbes across environments.
Wednesday, May 18, 2016
AbbVie, University of Chicago Collaborate
The University of Chicago and AbbVie have entered into a five-year collaboration agreement designed to improve the pace of discovery and advance medical research in oncology at both organizations.
Thursday, April 21, 2016
New Code for Control of Gene Expression
A new cellular signal discovered by a team of scientists at the University of Chicago and Tel Aviv University provides a promising new lever in the control of gene expression.
Thursday, February 18, 2016
Bacterial Circadian Clocks Set by Metabolism, Not Light
New study finds that metabolism is the primary driver of the circadian rhythm.
Monday, December 14, 2015
New Nanomanufacturing Technique Advances Imaging, Biosensing Technology
Researchers invent a novel way to build nanolenses in large arrays using a combination of chemical and lithographic techniques.
Thursday, December 10, 2015
Enormous Genetic Variation May Shield Tumors from Treatment
Debate over Darwinian selection vs. random mutations emerges at the tumor level.
Wednesday, November 11, 2015
Scientific News
Big Genetics in BC: The American Society for Human Genetics 2016 Meeting
Themes at this year's meeting ranged from the verification, validation, and sharing of data, to the translation of laboratory findings into actionable clinical results.
Stem Cells in Drug Discovery
Potential Source of Unlimited Human Test Cells, but Roadblocks Remain.
Automated Low Volume Dispensing Trends
Gain a better understanding of the current and future market requirements for fully automated LVD systems.
Personality Traits, Psychiatric Disorders Linked to Specific Genomic Locations
Researchers have unearthed genetic correlations between personality traits and psychiatric disorders.
Forensic 3D Documentation of Skin Injuries
In this study, the validity of using photogrammetry for documenting injuries in a pathological context was demonstrated.
3-D Printed Dog’s Nose Improves Vapor Detection
By mimicking how dogs get their whiffs, a team of government and university researchers have demonstrated that “active sniffing” can improve by more than 10 times the performance of current technologies that rely on continuous suction to detect trace amounts of explosives and other contraband.
New Markers for Forensic Body-fluid Identification
University of Bonn researchers have successfully identified specific Micro-RNA signatures to help forensically identify body fluids.
Genetics Control Regenerative Properties Of Stem Cells
Researchers define how genetic factors control regenerative properties of blood-forming stem cells.
Major Neuroscience Initiative Launched
Tianqiao and Chrissy Chen Institute invest $115 million to further expand neuroscience research, while Caltech construct $200 million biosciences complex.
Making It Personal
Cancer vaccine linked to increased immune response against leukemia cells.
Scroll Up
Scroll Down
Skyscraper Banner

SELECTBIO Market Reports
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
 
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
4,000+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
5,300+ scientific videos
Close
Premium CrownJOIN TECHNOLOGY NETWORKS PREMIUM FOR FREE!