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Bacterial Genomic Changes Revealed through Next-generation Sequencing Data Analysis

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is capable of causing gonorrhoea and more complex diseases in the human host. The Correia Repeat Enclosed Element (CREE), an IS-like element, has been predicted to be mobile within the neisserial genomes. Although there is evidence of ancestral movement of these elements, no previous study has provided evidence for current mobilisation. The CREE has the ability to alter gene expression and regulation in many ways: by insertional mutagenesis; by introducing promoter elements; and by generating mRNA processing sites. Previous studies have compared the genomic locations of CREE in the Neisseria spp., demonstrating that otherwise identical regions have either the element or the target TA insertion site. We report here movement of CREE, through inversion of the element at its chromosomal location. Analysis of Ion Torrent generated genome sequence data from N. gonorrhoeae strain NCCP11945 revealed a total of 37 CREE inversions that have the capability to alter gene expression in N. gonorrhoeae through the previously determined activities of the sequence features of these elements.

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