The MaxDiscovery™ Human IL-17 ELISA Test Kit is designed for quantitative determination of the concentration of human IL-17 in serum, plasma, and cell culture supernatant. Human interleukin 17 (IL-17) is a disulfide-linked homodimer with each ~ 17.5 kDa polypeptide of 136 amino acids (predicted mass = 17.5 kDa) after cleavage of a signal sequence of 19 amino acids. It contains six cysteines plus one potential N-linked glycosylation site, which is variably glycosylated, at least with recombinant proteins. It shares 63% and 58% sequence identity to those of mouse and rat, respectively and 72% identical to the thirteenth ORF of Herpesvirus saimiri. Originally identified as mouse cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-8 (CTLA-8), IL-17 is produced by activated memory T lymphocytes. IL-17 appears to mediate communication between the immune system and the hematopoietic system. There is at least some species specificity for in vitro action on bone-marrow stromal cells. The IL-17 receptor (IL-17 R) from the mouse has been characterized. It is a 120 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein. There is neither an Ig-like domain nor the WSXWS motif of hematopoietin receptors in the 291 amino acid extracellular segment of the receptor, and there is no identifiable tyrosine kinase domain in the 521 residue cytosolic region. There are, however, serine-rich regions similar to those in IL-2 Rß, IL-4 R and G-CSF R. Thus, the receptor appears to be related to class I cytokine receptors. Based on cell line studies, IL-17 R is expressed by mast cells, fibroblasts, fetal hepatocytes, pre-B cells, and intestinal epithelial cells. It has been reported that IL-17 mediated T cell communication with the hematopoietic system. T cell-derived IL-17 induces fibroblasts to produce IL-6, IL-8, ICAM-1 and G-CSF, apparently by an NF-?B-mediated mechanism. IL-6 in turn promotes development of granulocyte/macrophage colonies, and G-CSF directs development of neutrophils. IL-17 also enhances proliferation of partially activated T cells and upregulates nitric oxide (NO) production in osteoarthritic cartilage. Selected Citations: Akhtar N., Verma, K. K., Sharma A. (Oct 2010) Study of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine profile in the patients with parthenium dermatitis Contact Dermatitis 63 (4): 203 – 208. Akhtar, N. et al (Dec 2010)Dysregulation of TH type cytokines in the patients of Parthenium induced contact dermatitis. Clinica Chimica Acta, 411 (23-24): 2024 - 2028.