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Changes in the Gene Expression of mRNA Transcripts for Insulin like Growth Factor, their receptor and Facilitative Glucose Transporter in IVM Oocytes
S.C. Gupta, Neelam Gupta and Alok Pandey

The cDNA libraries from single oocytes and pre-implantation buffalo embryos from 2 cell stage to blastocyst were established. Relative expression studied with RT-PCR of IGF-I showed an increase at 12h and decline at 24h of IVM oocytes. IGF-IR was expressed at cleavage stages to blastocyts. Glut-I was expressed in IVM oocytes and SCNT embryos at all stages. Gene expression of IGF-I, IGF-IR and Glut-I plays an important role in SCNT embryo production.

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DNA Methylation Analysis – Reliable Cell Characterization in Regenerative Medicine
Uli Hoffmueller, Stephen Rapko, Udo Baron, Georg Wieczorek, Alexander Hellwag, Cornelia Krüger, Stefan Kärst, Leslie Wolfe and Sven Olek

We demonstrate that DNA methylation patterns can serve as characteristic markers to distinguish different cell types. We have identified panels of methylation markers that are specific to mesenchymal stem cells or various differentiated cell types in the mesenchymal lineage. This method of cell type identification has a number of advantages over conventional markers in that it is robust, is both qualitative and quantitative.

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EM Algorithm for Gene Copy Number Estimation Using TaqMan® Assays
Catalin Barbacioru, Kelly Li, Caifu Chen and Raymond Samaha

Recently, TaqMan® assays have been developed for detection of genetic variation at gene level using primers and probes designed for genomic DNA sequences. The R package TaqGCN contains classes and methods that can be used for data reading and plotting, and for predicting gene copy number.

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EasyBeacons™ - new Probes Ideal for Realtime PCR Detection of Methylation Status of Single CpG Duplets and SNPs
K. Skadhauge, C. Nielsen & U.B. Christensen

The EasyBeacons™ presented here are based on the novel technology Intercalating Nucleic Acid, INA®, linked to a fluorophore and a quencher. INA® is composed of normal DNA nucleotides and Intercalating Pseudo Nucleotides (IPNs). The fact that the EasyBeacons™ are mostly composed of normal DNA nucleotides means that in many respects EasyBeacons™ behave like DNA based probes, allowing use of standard buffers, primers and enzymes and hence reduces the optimisation efforts.

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Real-time PCR Gene Expression Profiling
Mikael Kubista, José Manuel Andrade, Björn Sjögreen and Amin Forootan

Correct interpretation of real-time PCR data requires appropriate experimental design, accurate data pre-processing and analysis of the data using proper statistical and multivariate methods. For this process we have developed the GenEx software.

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Sensitive and Specific Detection of microRNAs
Martin Kreutz, James Qin, Holger Engel, Po-Jen Shih, Peter Hahn, Martin Schlumpberger, Subrahmanyam Yerramilli and Eric Lader

MicroRNAs are endogenous, 21–22 nt, noncoding RNAs that mediate post transcriptional gene regulation. miRNAs are involved in regulation of gene expression during development, differentiation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Misregulation of miRNA expression is associated with several cancers and other diseases. We have developed the miScript System for real-time PCR analysis of hundreds of miRNAs, sno RNAs, piRNAs, other small noncoding RNAs.

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Real-time PCR in Diagnostics of Plant Viruses
Mehle N., Boben J. and Ravnikar M.

Sensitive and specific method real-time PCR was developed for diagnostics of certain plant viruses. Real-time PCR can be used for determination of different viruses as well as for differentiation between related strains of viruses. The method can also be used for detection of low concentrations of plant viruses in various samples such as environmental waters, growth substrates and seeds.

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Real-Time Multiplex Rt-PCR on Circulating Tumor Cells
Anieta M. Sieuwerts, Stefan Sleijfer, Jaco Kraan, Joan Bolt-de Vries, Jan-Willem Gratama, John WM Martens and John A. Foekens

Using the CTC kit (CellSearch™), cells that attached to anti-EpCAM Moab were immunomagnetically separated and used for analysis of a selected pilot set of 32 genes by real time RT-PCR. This study shows the feasibility of multiple gene expression analysis on RNA isolated from only one tumor cell. Most importantly, expression analysis of several tumor-specific genes in blood samples containing only 2 tumor cells is already possible.

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Novel Fluidics Microbead Trap/Flow Cell Enhances Speed/Sensitivity of Bead-Based Bioassays Up to 5-Fold
RM Ozanich, CJ Bruckner-Lea, JW Grate, MG Warner, BP Dockendorff, KC Antolick, HC Edberg, LH Johnson, AN Easterday

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has developed a micro/nano particle trap that allows surface-functionalized magnetic or non-magnetic particles to be trapped with subsequent perfusion of sample, reagents and wash solutions, yielding significant (up to 5-fold) improvements in assay speed and sensitivity, while significantly reducing sample matrix effects.

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Scientific News
Ancient Viral Molecules Essential for Human Development
Genetic material from ancient viral infections is critical to human development, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
Measuring microRNAs in Blood to Speed Cancer Detection
A simple, ultrasensitive microRNA sensor holds promise for the design of new diagnostic strategies and, potentially, for the prognosis and treatment of pancreatic and other cancers.
Best Test to Diagnose Strangles in Horses Identified
New research by Dr. Ashley Boyle of New Bolton Center’s Equine Field Service team shows that the best method for diagnosing Strangles in horses is to take samples from a horse’s guttural pouch and analyze them using a loop-mediated amplification (LAMP) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test.
Tardigrade's Are DNA Master Thieves
Tardigrades, nearly microscopic animals that can survive the harshest of environments, including outer space, hold the record for the animal that has the most foreign DNA.
Rapid, Portable Ebola Diagnostic
Scientists confirmed the efficiency of the novel Ebola detection method in field trials.
Detecting When Hormone Treatment for Breast Cancer Stops Working
Scientists have developed a highly sensitive blood test that can spot when breast cancers become resistant to standard hormone treatment, and have demonstrated that this test could guide further treatment.
Packaging and Unpacking of the Genome
New research improves understanding of the importance of histone replacement.
New Way to Find DNA Damage
University of Utah chemists devised a new way to detect chemical damage to DNA that sometimes leads to genetic mutations responsible for many diseases, including various cancers and neurological disorders.
How Different Treatments for Crohn's Effect the Microbiome
Different treatments for Crohn's disease in children affects their gut microbes in distinct ways, which has implications for future development of microbial-targeted therapies for these patients, according to a study led by researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania.
Charting the 'Genomic Biography' of Leukemia
A new study by scientists at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard offers a glimpse of the wealth of information that can be gleaned by combing the genome of a large collection of leukemia tissue samples.
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