Corporate Banner
Satellite Banner
Stem Cells, Cellular Therapy & Biobanking
Scientific Community
Become a Member | Sign in
Home>News>This Article

How to Make Stem Cells – Nuclear Reprogramming Moves a Step Forward

Published: Monday, October 29, 2012
Last Updated: Monday, October 29, 2012
Bookmark and Share
The idea of taking a mature cell and removing its identity (nuclear reprogramming) so that it can then become any kind of cell, holds great promise for repairing damaged tissue or replacing bone marrow after chemotherapy.

Hot on the heels of his recent Nobel prize Dr John B. Gurdon has published today in BioMed Central’s open access journal Epigenetics & Chromatin research showing that  histone H3.3 deposited by the histone-interacting protein HIRA is a key step in reverting nuclei to a pluripotent type, capable of being any one of many cell types.

All of an individual’s cells have the same DNA, yet these cells become programmed, as the organism matures, into different types such as heart, or lung or brain. To achieve this different genes are more or less permanently switched off in each cell lineage. As an embryo grows, after a certain number of divisions, it is no longer possible for cells which have gone down the pathway to become something else. For example heart cells cannot be converted into lung tissue, and muscle cells cannot form bone.

One way to reprogram DNA is to transfer the nucleus of a mature cell into an unfertilized egg. Proteins and other factors inside the egg alter the DNA switching some genes on and other off until it resembles the DNA of a pluripotent cell. However there seem to be some difficulties with this method in completely wiping the cell’s ‘memory’.

One of the mechanisms regulating the activation of genes is chromatin and in particular histones. DNA is wrapped around histones and alteration in how the DNA is wound changes which genes are available to the cell. In order to understand how nuclear reprogramming works Dr Gurdon’s team transplanted a mouse nucleus into a frog oocyte (Xenopus laevis). They added fluorescently tagged histones by microinjection, so that they could see where  in the cell and nucleus the these histones collected.

Prof Gurdon explained, “Using real-time microscopy it became apparent that from 10 hours onwards H3.3 (the histone involved with active genes) expressed in the oocyte became incorporated into the transplanted nucleus. When we looked in detail at the gene Oct4, which is known to be involved in making cells pluripotent, we found that H3.3 was incorporated into Oct4, and that this coincided with the onset of transcription from the gene.” Prof Gurdon’s team also found that Hira, a protein required to incorporate H3.3 into chromatin, was also required for nuclear reprogramming.

Dr Steven Henikoff, from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, commented, “Manipulating the H3.3 pathway may provide a way to completely wipe a cell’s ‘memory’ and produce a truly pluripotent cell. Half a century after showing that cells can be reprogrammed this research provides a link to the work of Shinya Yamanaka (who shared the prize), and suggests that chromatin is a sticking point preventing artificially induced reprogramming being used routinely in the clinic.”

Further Information
Access to this exclusive content is for Technology Networks Premium members only.

Join Technology Networks Premium for free access to:

  • Exclusive articles
  • Presentations from international conferences
  • Over 2,800+ scientific posters on ePosters
  • More than 4,000+ scientific videos on LabTube
  • 35 community eNewsletters

Sign In

Forgotten your details? Click Here
If you are not a member you can join here

*Please note: By logging into you agree to accept the use of cookies. To find out more about the cookies we use and how to delete them, see our privacy policy.

Related Content

Organizing Human Specimen Collections: Getting the Best out of Biobanks
The diversity of biobanks, collections of human specimens from a variety of sources, raises questions about the best way to manage and govern them.
Friday, March 22, 2013
Transposable Elements Reveal a Stem Cell Specific Class of Long Noncoding RNAs
Over a decade after sequencing the human genome, it has now become clear that the genome is not mostly 'junk' as previously thought.
Tuesday, November 27, 2012
Modeling Cancer Using Ecological Principles
New research uses Tilman model of competition between invasive species to study the metastasis of prostate cells into bone.
Tuesday, October 04, 2011
Stem Cells from Bone Marrow Save the Day
New research investigates the therapeutic use of human stem cells from bone marrow against acute lung injury and identifies TNF-a-induced protein 6.
Monday, May 23, 2011
Scientific News
Fat Cells Originating from Bone Marrow Found in Humans
Cells could contribute to diabetes, heart disease.
Ancient Viral Molecules Essential for Human Development
Genetic material from ancient viral infections is critical to human development, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine.
CRI Identifies Emergency Blood-formation Response
Researchers report that when tissue damage occurs, an emergency blood-formation system activates.
New Way to Force Stem Cells to Become Bone Cells
Potential therapies based on this discovery could help people heal bone injuries or set hardware, such as replacement knees and hips.
Dead Bacteria to Kill Colorectal Cancer
Scientists from Nanyang Technological University (NTU Singapore) have successfully used dead bacteria to kill colorectal cancer cells.
Promise of Newborn Stem Cells to Revolutionize Clinical Practice
In this article Shweta Sharma, PhD, discusses the potential of an Umbilical Cord Blood bank as an untapped source of samples for research and clinical trials.
The Life Story of Stem Cells
A model analyses the development of stem cell numbers in the human body.
Novel Stem Cell Line Avoids Risk of Introducing Transplanted Tumors
Progenitor cells might eventually be used to repair or rebuild damaged or destroyed organs.
Advancing Genome Editing of Blood Stem Cells
Genome editing techniques for blood stem cells just got better, thanks to a team of researchers at USC and Sangamo BioSciences.
Molecule Proves Key to Brain Repair After Stroke
Scientists found that a molecule known as growth and differentiation factor 10 (GDF10) plays a key role in repair mechanisms following stroke.
Skyscraper Banner

Skyscraper Banner
Go to LabTube
Go to eposters
Access to the latest scientific news
Exclusive articles
Upload and share your posters on ePosters
Latest presentations and webinars
View a library of 1,800+ scientific and medical posters
2,800+ scientific and medical posters
A library of 2,500+ scientific videos on LabTube
4,000+ scientific videos