Human Minibrains reveal the Effects of Psychedelic Substances
These are DMT-responsive receptors. Credit: D'Or Institute for Research and Education (IDOR).
A Brazilian study, has identified changes in signaling pathways associated with neural plasticity, inflammation and neurodegeneration triggered by a compound from the family of dimethyltryptamine known as 5-MeO-DMT.
“For the first time we could describe psychedelic related changes in the molecular functioning of human neural tissue”, states Stevens Rehen, study leader, Professor of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) and Head of Research at D’Or Institute for Research and Education (IDOR).
Though recent studies have demonstrated that psychedelic substances, such as LSD (Lysergic acid diethylamide), MDMA (Methylenedioxymethamphetamine) and ayahuasca brew which contains DMT, hold therapeutic potential with possible anti-inflammatory and antidepressant effects, the lack of appropriate biological tools has been shown as a critical limitation for the identification of molecular pathways targeted by psychedelics in the brain.
In order to unveil the effects of 5-MeO-DMT, Vanja Dakić (IDOR) and Juliana Minardi Nascimento (IDOR and University of Campinas) have exposed cerebral organoids, which are 3D cultures of neural cells that mimic a developing human brain, to a single dose of the psychedelic.
By employing mass spectrometry-based proteomics to analyze cerebral organoids, they identified that 5-MeO-DMT altered the expression of nearly thousand proteins. Then, they mapped which proteins were impacted by the psychedelic substance and their role in the human brain.
Researchers found that proteins important for synaptic formation and maintenance were upregulated. Among them, proteins related to cellular mechanisms of learning and memory, key components of brain functioning.
On the other hand, proteins involved in inflammation, degeneration and brain lesion were downregulated, suggesting a potential neuroprotective role for the psychedelic substance.
“Results suggest that classic psychedelics are powerful inducers of neuroplasticity, a tool of psychobiological transformation that we know very little about”, states Sidarta Ribeiro, Director of the Brain Institute of Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN) and coauthor of the study.
“Our study reinforces the hidden clinical potential of substances that are under legal restrictions, but which deserve attention of medical and scientific communities”, Dr. Rehen said.
This article has been republished from materials provided by D'Or Institute for Research and Education. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.
Vanja Dakic, Juliana Minardi Nascimento, Rafaela Costa Sartore, Renata de Moraes Maciel, Draulio B. de Araujo, Sidarta Ribeiro, Daniel Martins-de-Souza, Stevens K. Rehen. Short term changes in the proteome of human cerebral organoids induced by 5-MeO-DMT. Scientific Reports, 2017; 7 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-12779-5
Adult depression has long been associated with shrinkage of the hippocampus, a brain region that plays an important role in memory and response to stress. Now, new research has linked participation in team sports to larger hippocampal volumes in children and less depression in boys ages 9 to 11.
Researchers have discovered a brain process common to sleep and ageing in research that could pave the way for new treatments for insomnia. The scientists report how oxidative stress leads to sleep. Oxidative stress is also believed to be a reason why we age and a cause of degenerative diseases.READ MORE
Patients in a new Northwestern Medicine study were able to comprehend words that were written but not said aloud. They could write the names of things they saw but not verbalize them. This provides an insight into the brain degeneration that defines the rare dementia termed primary progressive aphasia.