Estrogen Monitoring in River Water by LC-MS/MS With Online SPE
Endogenous estrogens are of interest due to their harmful effects on both humans and wildlife, and their physiological activity even at very low levels. This makes them an important environmental target, as hormonal drugs are frequently discarded by flushing, making their way into rivers and lakes.
These hormones are particularly challenging to monitor, with concentrations typically expected to be in the low ng/mL (ppb) to low pg/mL (ppt) range.
In this application note, discover how you can utilize on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to an LC-MS/MS system for sample enrichment and quantitation of endogenous estrogens, allowing for:
- Significant analyte concentrations
- Simpler sample preparation procedures
- Smaller sample volumes