Forensic Botany Uses Plant DNA to Trace Crimes
News Mar 03, 2016
In an article published in the International Journal of Legal Medicine, faculty and students from the Department of Forensic Science report that they developed a test to individualize samples of marijuana that could be used to link drugs across cases. The study examined 11 cases containing a total of 199 samples from U.S. Customs and Border Protection, which included four matching genotypes indicating drugs came from the same source.
"The use of a DNA-based method for identification will allow federal law enforcement agencies (e.g., U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)) to form links between cases involving the cross-border trafficking of Cannabis," said Dr. David Gangitano, one of the authors on the study.
In a second article published in Science and Justice, researchers found that pine pollen could provide a viable source of DNA for criminal investigations. Pine pollen remains viable for DNA testing for at least two weeks on cotton clothing and can help link a suspect or victim to a location. The study examined a new collection device, a high-throughput method for DNA extraction and amplification, and a newly-developed system for genotyping.
"This study has shown that pollen can be a stable source of forensic DNA evidence, as a proof-of-principle, and that may persist on cotton clothing for at least 14 days of wear," said Dr. Gangitano. "This method can be applied in forensic cases where pollen grains larger than 10 μm (e.g., from herbs or trees) may be transferred to clothing (worn by suspect or victim) by primary contact."
In addition to published research, Dr. Gangitano recently was invited as a key speaker to participate in the inaugural meeting of the First International Congress of Forensic Botany in Chile. He collaborated with the Investigative Police from the Republic of Chile on several cases involving plant evidence. In 2014, a Chilean forensic scientist was invited to Sam Houston State University to learn about molecular identification of a single grain of pollen. Dr. Gangitano also consulted on a double homicide case involving a few grains of potato pollen found on the suspect and a high profile case of an American student in Chile where the critical evidence involved an oak leaf.
In a new study in cells, University of Illinois researchers have adapted CRISPR gene-editing technology to cause the cell’s internal machinery to skip over a small portion of a gene when transcribing it into a template for protein building. This gives researchers a way not only to eliminate a mutated gene sequence, but to influence how the gene is expressed and regulated.
Researchers published today a detailed description of the complete genome of bread wheat, the world's most widely-cultivated crop. This work will pave the way for the production of wheat varieties better adapted to climate challenges, with higher yields, enhanced nutritional quality and improved sustainability.