Detection of Environmental Contaminants Caused by the Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico by GC and HPLC
Poster May 25, 2011
Sky Countryman, Ngoc Nguyen, Jeff Layne, Kory Kelly and Zeshan Aqeel
The April 2010 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is undeniably the largest oil leak in U.S. history. The objective of this work was to provide analytical methods for analyzing the most common contaminants. Several rapid cleanup procedures utilizing SPE or GPC followed by analysis with GC-FID, GC/MS or HPLC were developed for detecting Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other Petroleum Hydrocarbons.
Total petroleum content in aqueous samples was determined by GC and classified by boiling point range: gasoline range (GRO), diesel range (DRO), or oil range organics (ORO).
The nature of some of the early samples collected suggested that it was composed of extremely high molecular weight materials with boiling ranges in the ORO. These samples require the use of specialized metal GC columns that are capable of withstanding temperatures above 430 °C. Methodologies are presented to characterize hydrocarbon samples that contain species higher than C120.
Traditional approaches to hydrocarbon testing provide a sum of the hydrocarbon material present in the sample but make no distinction between the types of hydrocarbons. While these methods give a general understanding of the sample, they do not accurately describe its toxic potential. To give a more accurate assessment of sample toxicity, samples are fractionated using a silica gel SPE cartridge into an aromatic and an aliphatic portion. The fractions are then run separately by GC-FID and the level of specific compounds that are known to be toxic can be measured. An alternative procedure of extracting PAH isomers from water using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by analysis by GC/MS is also demonstrated.
Using Elemental Analysis For Discrimination Of Pinot Noir Wines From Six Different Districts In An AvaPoster
The determination of geographical origin of wine is gaining increased interest by researchers and federal agencies around the world, partially due to increased fraud with regards to place of origin labelling. For wine, multi-elemental profiling of macro, micro, and trace elements has been proposed for determination of authenticity. Commercial wines from different wineries in 5 different neighborhoods within one AVA show characteristic elemental fingerprints. Macro, micro and trace elements as well as elemental ratios contribute to the observed separation, indicating the involvement of multiple factors and underlying mechanisms, including location and soil composition, elemental uptake by vine and rootstock, viticulture and nutrient management, water sources, and small differences in the different wineries.READ MORE
Fast arsenic speciation analysis of wines and rice with LC-ICP-QQQPoster
This method was designed in response to recent and proposed food standards, both international and national, that limit inorganic arsenic rather than total, organic, or individual arsenic species such as arsenite (AsIII) and arsenate (AsV). Analysis time is 10x faster than the current FDA regulatory method, increasing sample throughput, avoided spectral interferences and dramatically increased sensitivity. Validation data from two laboratories demonstrate the method’s accuracy and reproducibility of both wine and rice matrices in a single analytical batch.READ MORE
Elemental profiles of whiskies allow differentiation by type and region by inductively coupled plasma –optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES)Poster
The analysis of the elemental composition of whiskies provides a host of important information including sample origin and understanding how different whiskey styles are caused by processing equipment and raw materials. Preliminary data analysis of the whiskies showed that element compositions could possibly be used to differentiate samples based on age, type, and region.READ MORE