A New Role for an Old Immune Cell
Killer T cells (green and red) surrounding a cancer cell. Image by Alex Ritter, Jennifer Lippincott Schwartz, Gillian Griffiths/National Institutes of Health
A new study has identified a previously undescribed role for a type of unconventional T cell with the potential to be used in the development of new therapies for infection and cancer.
The study, published in Nature Communications, shows that Gamma Delta T cells are able to generate immunological memory against previous infections and cancerous targets.
The results challenge the textbook description of Gamma Delta T cells as 'natural born killers' with an innate ability to recognise and destroy abnormal cells.
Lead author of the study, Professor Ben Willcox from the Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy at the University of Birmingham, explains the key findings: "Instead of being 'natural born killers', we found these cells are actually quite smart. They adapt to and remember what they have encountered in life, which may include infections and pre-cancerous cells.
"This phenomenon of 'immunological memory' is what current vaccines exploit, but because Gamma Delta T cells recognise their targets in a different way, they present novel routes to generate vaccines, and also cell therapy approaches against infection and cancer."
In order to harness these "adaptive" abilities of Gamma Delta T cells, work is now required to identify the mechanism by which they recognise abnormal cells.
"We are working with other partners to understand exactly how these cells recognise signs of abnormality in infection and cancer, focussing on human cohorts. This knowledge will be crucial to help us build on the current study and explore how to develop new cell therapies and vaccines that exploit Gamma Delta T cells," adds Professor Willcox.
This article has been republished from materials provided by University of Birmingham. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.
Martin S. Davey, Carrie R. Willcox, Stephen P. Joyce, Kristin Ladell, Sofya A. Kasatskaya, James E. McLaren, Stuart Hunter, Mahboob Salim, Fiyaz Mohammed, David A. Price, Dmitriy M. Chudakov, Benjamin E. Willcox. Clonal selection in the human Vδ1 T cell repertoire indicates γδ TCR-dependent adaptive immune surveillance. Nature Communications, 2017; 8: 14760 DOI: 10.1038/NCOMMS14760
Some Immune Cells May Help Tumors Instead of Destroying ThemNews
New data shows that neutrophils promote tumor progression and can actually hamper the work of immunotherapy in lung cancer.READ MORE
Cancer Gene Plays Key Role in Cystic Fibrosis Lung InfectionsNews
Recent findings explain why people with cystic fibrosis are particularly prone to respiratory infections—and suggest a new approach to treatment.READ MORE
Oligonucleotide Drug Producers Report on Drug ImpuritiesNews
A new addition to a series of articles that focus on important topics related to the development of oligonucleotide therapeutics presents an in-depth look at the identification, characterization, and reporting of product-related impurities.READ MORE