Ronin Provides Alternate Pathway to Pristine Embryonic Stem Cells
News Jun 27, 2008
Like the masterless samurai for whom it is named, the protein Ronin chooses an independent path, maintaining embryonic stem cells in their undifferentiated state and playing essential roles in genesis of embryos and their development, said Baylor College of Medicine researchers who reported on this novel cellular regulator in the current issue of the journal Cell.
Three proteins - Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog - had previously been considered the "master" regulators of embryonic stem cells, but "Ronin could be as important as these three," said Dr. Thomas Zwaka, assistant professor in the Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine (STaR) Center at BCM. In fact, he said, if the action of Oct4, considered the most important, is reduced in embryonic stem cells, Ronin can compensate for the loss.
Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, meaning they have the potential for becoming all other kinds of cells in the body. They are also capable of self-renewal. Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog were previously thought the major method by which embryonic stem cells remained in their pristine state. Now, Ronin represents a different and parallel pathway to achieve the same result.
Ronin is also expressed in early embryonic development of mice. If it is not present, the embryos die, said Zwaka. It is also found in mature oocytes or egg cells.
"Ronin is a potent transcription repressor," he said. In fact, it prevents the action of genes that promote the differentiation of cells into the various tissues and organs of the body.
"It does it more effectively than the other three factors together," he said. It silences the differentiation genes epigenetically through specific chemical mechanisms that modify histones, the chief packaging proteins for DNA.
He and his colleagues found Ronin as a follow-up to an earlier study that showed a component of the cell death system called caspase-3 actually cleaved and reduced the amount of Nanog protein. This caused the embryonic stem cells to stop self-renewal and begin differentiation into other kinds of cells.
Scleroderma Study Offers New Hope For SufferersNews
An unusual autoimmune disease that causes skin and lung damage can be treated effectively by stem cell transplant, a new study found. The approach could represent the first new treatment to improve survival in patients with severe scleroderma in more than four decades.READ MORE
Heart-muscle Patches Created from Human Cells Improve Recovery from Heart AttacksNews
Large, human cardiac-muscle patches created in the lab have been tested, for the first time, on large animals in a heart attack model. This clinically relevant approach showed that the patches significantly improved recovery from heart attack injury.READ MORE