Analysis of RNA Polymerase II Mutants using Roche’s xCELLigence System
News Oct 23, 2009
The C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA Polymerase II consists of multiple repeats of an evolutionary conserved motif of seven amino acids, forming a repetitive structure of 52 repeats in humans and 26 repeats in yeast. Twenty years after the first description of the RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain, its function is still unclear.
In a recent research study, M. Heidemann used Roche’s xCELLigence RTCA SP Instrument for in vitro testing of cells to test entirely synthetic CTDs.
According to his findings, the new xCELLigence System technology allows for the first time the monitoring of cell proliferation and cell death throughout the entire experiment, constantly recording cellular effects during cell plating, transfection, and compound treatment. This non-invasive and continuous monitoring of cells provides a far more detailed picture into the whole experimental process, revealing both specific and off-target effects that may have been missed using conventional endpoint assays.
The precise regulation of gene expression is a very important feature of how organisms respond to environmental changes and regulate cell proliferation, development, and even programmed cell death. Gene expression starts with the transcription of genomic DNA into messenger RNA, the template for protein synthesis during ribosomal translation. RNA polymerase Pol II is one out of three different RNA polymerases used by eukaryotic cells to produce the main categories of cellular RNA.
In contrast to Pol I and Pol III, Pol II transcripts are translated into proteins. Pol II is also modified by enzymes influencing different stages of transcription, processing of premature mRNAs in a promoter-dependent manner. These modifications occur in a domain at the carboxy-terminal part of the largest subunit of Pol II, which has a very unique structure.
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A team of chemists at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) has now designed a two-dimensional protein crystal that toggles between states of varying porosity and density. This is a first in biomolecular design that combined experimental studies with computation done on supercomputers. The research, published in April 2018 in Nature Chemistry, could help create new materials for renewable energy, medicine, water purification, and more.
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Rice farming spread far and wide in ancient Southeast Asia, but how it got there has been a mystery. Now, a study of 4000-year-old DNA—a rare find in this region—suggests it came with farmers migrating from China, where rice farming originated.
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