deCODE Obesity Study Sheds Light on How Genetics Affects Risk and Onset of Common Diseases
News Mar 18, 2008
In a paper published online in the journal Nature, a team of deCODE scientists detail a major mechanism through which genetic factors contribute to major public health problems.
In its work on the inherited components of dozens of common diseases, deCODE has discovered gene variants that significantly affect individual susceptibility or protection against disease. In the common forms of these conditions – such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases – deCODE has previously shown that genetic variants confer increased or decreased risk by upregulating or downregulating the activity of major biological pathways.
As a result, these variants place individuals on a spectrum of risk, with most of the population clustered at roughly average risk and a smaller number of people at either significantly higher or lower risk.
In paper, the deCODE team and collaborators from Merck demonstrate one of the principal ways in which the activity of biological pathways is functionally perturbed in a quintessentially complex condition: obesity. Through analysis of adipose tissue from some 1700 Icelandic participants in obesity research cohorts, the deCODE team showed in data derived from primary human tissue that variations in gene expression – in the up-regulation or downregulation of how genes are translated into proteins – have a major impact on several parameters of clinical obesity.
The deCODE team then used its unique resources for genome-wide linkage and association analysis to demonstrate that variability in gene expression, like overall risk for disease, has a significant inherited component that can be linked to specific versions of genetic markers.
The paper, “Genetics of gene expression and its effect on disease,” is published on Nature’s website, www.nature.com, and will appear in a subsequent print edition of the journal.
As genome editing technologies advance toward clinical therapies, they are raising hopes of a completely new way to treat disease. However, challenges need to be addressed before potential treatments can be widely used in patients. To tackle these challenges, the National Institutes of Health has launched the Somatic Cell Genome Editing program, which has awarded multiple grants including more than $3.6 million to assess the safety of genome editing in human cells and tissues.