DNA microarray analysis is an effective method to detect unintended effects by detecting differentially expressed genes (DEG) in safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops. With the aim to reveal the distribution of DEG of GM crops under different conditions, we performed DNA microarray analysis using transgenic rice Huahui 1 (HH1) and its non-transgenic parent Minghui 63 (MH63) at different developmental stages and environmental conditions. Considerable DEG were selected in each group of HH1 under different conditions. For each group of HH1, the number of DEG was different; however, considerable common DEG were shared between different groups of HH1. These findings suggested that both DEG and common DEG were adequate for investigation of unintended effects. Furthermore, a number of significantly changed pathways were found in all groups of HH1, indicating genetic modification caused everlasting changes to plants. To our knowledge, our study for the first time provided the non-uniformly distributed pattern for DEG of GM crops at different developmental stages and environments. Our result also suggested that DEG selected in GM plants at specific developmental stage and environment could act as useful clues for further evaluation of unintended effects of GM plants.
This article is published online in PLoS One and is free to access.