Gladstone Scientists Identify Role of Tiny RNAs in Controlling Stem Cell Fate
News Sep 15, 2008
Researchers at the Gladstone Institute of Cardiovascular Disease (GICD) and the University of California, San Francisco have identified how tiny genetic factors called microRNAs may influence the differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells into cardiac muscle.
As reported in the journal Cell Stem Cell, scientists in the lab of GICD Director, Deepak Srivastava, MD, demonstrated that two microRNAs, miR-1 and miR-133, which have been associated with muscle development, not only encourage heart muscle formation, but also actively suppress genes that could turn the ES cells into undesired cells like neurons or bone.
“Understanding how pluripotent stem cells can be used in therapy requires that we understand the myriad processes and factors that influence cell fate,” said Dr. Srivastava. “This work shows that microRNAs can function both in directing how ES cells change into specific cells—as well as preventing these cells from developing into unwanted cell types.”
The differentiation of ES cells into heart cells or any other type of adult cell is a very complicated process involving many factors. MicroRNAs, or miRNAs, seem to act as rheostats or dimmer switches to fine-tune levels of important proteins in cells. More than 450 human miRNAs have been described and each is predicted to regulate tens if not hundreds of proteins that may determine cellular differentiation.
While many ES cell-specific miRNAs have been identified, the role of individual miRNAs in ES cell differentiation had not previously been determined. The Gladstone team showed that miRNAs can control how pluripotent stem cells determine their fate, or “cell lineage” - in this case as cardiac muscle cells.
Specifically, they found that miR-1 and miR-133 are active at the early stages of heart cell formation, when an ES cell is first deciding to become mesoderm, one of the three basic tissue layers in mammals and other organisms.
Activity of either miR-1 or miR-133 in ES cells caused genes that encourage mesoderm formation to be turned on. Equally important, they caused other genes that would have told the cell to become ectoderm or endoderm to turn off.
In a new study in cells, University of Illinois researchers have adapted CRISPR gene-editing technology to cause the cell’s internal machinery to skip over a small portion of a gene when transcribing it into a template for protein building. This gives researchers a way not only to eliminate a mutated gene sequence, but to influence how the gene is expressed and regulated.
Researchers published today a detailed description of the complete genome of bread wheat, the world's most widely-cultivated crop. This work will pave the way for the production of wheat varieties better adapted to climate challenges, with higher yields, enhanced nutritional quality and improved sustainability.