National Science Foundation Supports Research Aimed at Reducing the use of Fertilizer
News Jan 26, 2012
Foundation awarded $1.3 million to support research into reducing fertilizer used to grow maize. The program includes collaboration with the University of Minnesota, Purdue University and Cornell University.
Maize is the most widely adapted and adopted crop on the planet. This is largely due to the high degree of genetic and phenotypic diversity that can be harnessed into adaptation for local conditions. While progress has been made in understanding some aspects of adaptation such as flowering time, little progress has been made with respect to adaptation to soil conditions.
Mineral Nutrient Gene Discovery and Gene X Environment Interactions in Maize will focus on Nested Association Mapping (NAM) population, a unique and powerful genetic resource, to identify genes controlling the elemental composition of maize. Baxter's research will identify how different genes interact with mineral nutrients and toxic elements from various soil conditions to create a better understanding how soil environments play a role in the functional state of maize. The goal is to use this information to produce a more nutritious crop that can grow in more environments while using less fertilizer, thereby preserving the environment.
"The USDA-ARS lab at the Danforth Center can rapidly analyze large genetic populations of the diverse staple crop with the statistically powerful resource of Nested Association Mapping," said Baxter. "The grant addresses issues critical for agriculture, the environment and human health and will further our understanding of how soil conditions affect the elemental composition of maize."
To further education on this important topic, student and teacher internships will be sponsored in St. Louis, MO, St. Paul, MN and Ithaca, NY. In addition, educational resources will be developed to assist high school teachers in incorporating bioinformatics and plant molecular biology into their curricula. Participants will also mentor high school students in science through eScience, a program utilizing technology to link students and scientists.
Though separated by a world of ocean, and unrelated to each other, two fish groups – one in the Arctic, the other in the Antarctic – share a surprising survival strategy: they both have evolved the ability to produce the same special brand of antifreeze protein in their tissues. A new study describes in molecular detail how the Arctic fishes built the gene for their antifreeze from tiny fragments of noncoding DNA, regions once considered “junk DNA.”READ MORE