New Mutation Causing Intellectual Disability Identified
Assistant Professor Gholson Lyon Credit: CSHL
An international group of researchers led by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) Assistant Professor Gholson Lyon has identified a new genetic mutation associated with intellectual disability, developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, abnormal facial features, and congenital cardiac anomalies.
The genetic mutation, which can run in families, is related to the mutation underlying Ogden syndrome, a much more serious condition that shares many of the same symptoms.
In 2011, Lyon and his colleagues published the first paper about Ogden syndrome, named for the Utah town in which five boys across two generations of a single family were struck down by the disease before age 3. Caused by a mutation in a gene called NAA10, Ogden is an X-chromosome-linked condition, meaning only males are afflicted.
In the 7 years since Ogden’s discovery, Lyon has been collecting information on individuals with mutations in a related gene called NAA15. It bears the blueprint for a protein that works alongside the NAA10 protein in a cellular mechanism that modifies other proteins. This mechanism is called NatA-mediated N-terminal acetylation.
Lyon was made aware of the first individual with what he calls “NAA15-related disorder” by clinical geneticist Wendy Chung at Columbia University. She and colleagues had published a paper in which they described a boy with a mutation in NAA15 who had congenital heart defects as well as developmental delays and intellectual disability. Lyon and colleagues have since collected referrals from clinicians around the world that have identified a total of 37 individuals in 32 families with a mutation in NAA15. They include both men and women, as the NAA15 gene is not located on the X chromosome.
Dr. Holly Stressman of Creighton University and Dr. Linyan Meng of Baylor College of Medicine were co-senior leaders of the team, with Dr. Lyon.
“Trying to prove the relevance of any mutation in a gene requires a large number of samples,” Lyon says. “As a result, we’re seeing the field of human genetics move more toward this type of large-scale collaboration.” This points to the future promise of this research, he suggests. “As the price of genetic sequencing drops and more people are sequenced, we may be able to provide individuals with such mutations with more education and services in early life which could lead to better overall functioning.”
Lyon expects that many more disorders caused by rare mutations like NAA15 will be discovered. “Instead of lumping many diseases together under very broad categories like ‘intellectual disability’ or ‘autism,’ the human genetics community is now splitting these into much finer entities so that we can begin to do natural history studies, much like what has been done with Fragile X syndrome,” he says, citing the progress in understanding Fragile X based on extensive examinations of mutations in the FMRP gene associated with that disease.
This article has been republished from materials provided by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. Note: material may have been edited for length and content. For further information, please contact the cited source.
Reference: Cheng, H., Dharmadhikari, A. V., Varland, S., Ma, N., Domingo, D., Kleyner, R., … Lyon, G. J. (2018). Truncating Variants in NAA15 Are Associated with Variable Levels of Intellectual Disability, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Congenital Anomalies. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.03.004
Mechanism Controlling Multiple Sclerosis Risk IdentifiedNews
Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have now discovered a new mechanism of a major risk gene for multiple sclerosis (MS) that triggers disease through so-called epigenetic regulation. They also found a protective genetic variant that reduces the risk for MS through the same mechanism.
Synthetic DNA Shuffling Enzyme Outpaces Natural CounterpartNews
A new synthetic enzyme, crafted from DNA rather than protein, flips lipid molecules within the cell membrane, triggering a signal pathway that could be harnessed to induce cell death in cancer cells. Researchers say their lipid-scrambling DNA enzyme is the first in its class to outperform naturally occurring enzymes – and does so by three orders of magnitudeREAD MORE
Antarctic Worm and Machine Learning Help Identify Cerebral Palsy EarlierNews
A research team has released a study in the peer-reviewed journal BMC Bioinformatics showing that DNA methylation patterns in circulating blood cells can be used to help identify spastic cerebral palsy (CP) patients. The technique which makes use of machine learning, data science and even analysis of Antarctic worms, raises hopes for earlier targeted CP therapies.