University Hospitals Researchers Initiate Gene Therapy Trial in Patients with Advanced Skin Cancer
News Dec 21, 2007
Researchers at the Ireland Cancer Center of University Hospitals Case Medical Center are the first in the region to have joined a nationwide clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a gene therapy in patients with advanced melanoma which is aimed to help a patient’s own immune system fight their cancer.
The gene therapy is termed Allovectin-7®, and is injected directly into the cancer while it is still in the body in order to make it appear foreign to the immune system. Previous studies using the gene therapy have shown that injection of a single site of cancer can train the immune system to fight other areas of the disease in the body which have not been injected with the gene.
“Cancer cells often hide from the body’s natural disease-fighting mechanisms because they arise from normal tissue and don’t appear as foreign to the immune system,” said Julian Kim, MD, Chief of Surgical Oncology and lead investigator of the study at University Hospitals Case Medical Center.
“The challenge in treating advanced melanoma is to find a way to train the patient’s immune system to recognize cancerous cells as foreign which will help to eliminate them. The concept of injecting a gene into a cancer to make it appear as a foreign tissue essentially creates a personalized vaccine for each individual patient’s cancer. The hope is that the newly formed cancer vaccine will trigger several of the body’s natural immune response mechanisms to recognize and attack the cancer, both within the injected cancer and throughout the body,” Kim added.
As genome editing technologies advance toward clinical therapies, they are raising hopes of a completely new way to treat disease. However, challenges need to be addressed before potential treatments can be widely used in patients. To tackle these challenges, the National Institutes of Health has launched the Somatic Cell Genome Editing program, which has awarded multiple grants including more than $3.6 million to assess the safety of genome editing in human cells and tissues.