Amoebic Meningoencephalitis: Etiology, Infection and Prevention
Amoebic Meningioencephalitis generally presents in two ways. The first way is primary amoebic meningioencephalitis (PAM), which is caused by infected water containing amoeba Naegleria fowleri entering the nasal passage and penetrating the olfactory mucosa. This organism usually strikes children, with 83% of those who have contracted it being under eighteen years old. This disease is rapidly developing, and patients who do not receive treatment inside the first 48 hours will expire. Immediate treatment consists of miltefosine coupled with voriconazole and ice packs to decrease the patient's intense fever and combat the invasive amoeba. The second type of amoebic meningioencephalitis, which involves the Acanthamoeba spp. and Balamuthia mandrillasis, is granulomatous amoebic meningioencephalitis. This type strikes immunocommpromised patients with generally the same outcome and treatment type.