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10 Things We Didn't Know Last Week – 10 May 2019

List

A wrap-up of the biggest science news from the last 7 days.

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Making Neuroscience More Credible at BNA 2019

Article

At the British Neuroscience Association's Festival of Neuroscience 2019, we pulled aside one of the BNA's credibility board, Dr Verena Heise to ask her about credibility in neuroscience, how she became involved in promoting it, and how other players in research can help advance the credibility cause.

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Key Techniques in Diagnosing Dementia

List

Over 100 years has passed since Alois Alzheimer’s pioneering work into recognizing the symptoms of dementia. This list will review the current techniques that are used to diagnose dementia and the advances that are being made to exploit some of Alzheimer’s original discoveries to more quickly and accurately assess dementia.

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Exascale Computing to Unlock the Mysteries of the Human Brain

Article

The human brain sequesters many mysteries. How does cognitive development take place? How does it help us learn? What causes brain diseases? An exciting venture involving researchers from Argonne National Laboratory, the University of Chicago, Harvard University, and Princeton University is preparing to unleash a $500-million supercomputer, dubbed Aurora, in the pursuit of these answers.

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A Roadmap of Cell Death in the Alzheimer's Brain

News

Scientists have identified a new mechanism that accelerates aging in the brain and gives rise to the most devastating biological features of Alzheimer's disease.

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Early Life Exposure to Nicotine Alters Mouse Neurons and Predisposes Brain to Addiction
News

Neonatal exposure to nicotine alters the reward circuity in the brains of newborn mice, increasing their preference for the drug in later adulthood, report researchers in a new study.

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You Can't See What You Don't Pay Attention To
News

Experts who use optical illusions to understand human vision have released a new study that shows that brain rhythms can cause us to perceive or not perceive complex images. These rhythms can be reset with voluntary actions, like pushing a button.

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Children of Both Young and Old Parents Are at Risk of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
News

A new study reports that parental age is linked to the risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in children, including autism spectrum disorder; attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; obsessive-compulsive disorder; and Tourette's disorder/chronic tic disorder.

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Whole-Exome Sequencing at the Dawn of Personalized Medicine
Article

Deciphering the first complete sequence of the human genome in 2003 required a combined effort of scientists from 20 institutions and $3 billion of funding. Over the last decade, whole-exome sequencing (WES) established itself as a method that successfully balances cost and the output of useful data for diagnostic or research applications. Here, we look at how WES is used in both the laboratory and the clinic, and why it is a preferred method of choice in such areas.

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Antibodies in Research: The Good, the Bad, and the Validation Epidemic
Article

The specificity of antibody binding is incredibly important for many research disciplines, yet sourcing the best antibody for your research can be a challenge. This is partly because not all suppliers validate their antibodies sufficiently. How much of a problem is this?

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Voice to the Voiceless? Researchers Translate Brain Activity Into Speech
Article

A system capable of translating brain activity into synthesised speech by decoding the movements of muscles involved in vocalisation has shown its potential in a proof-of-concept experiment conducted by researchers at the University of California San Francisco.

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Why Does Ketamine Fight Depression? Finding Answers at BNA 2019
Article

A significant minority of major depressive disorder patients don’t respond to currently available antidepressant medication. A newly approved treatment, based on the "club drug" ketamine, could change that. In a session at the British Neuroscience Association’s Festival of Neuroscience 2019, the potential mechanisms of ketamine’s antidepressant action were put under examination.

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Sensitivity vs Specificity
Article

When developing diagnostic tests or evaluating results, it is important to understand how reliable those tests and therefore the results you are obtaining are. By using samples of known disease status, values such as sensitivity and specificity can be calculated that allow you to evaluate just that.

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A Further Dimension to Drug Discovery: Combining 3D Culture With iPSCs
Article

Running in parallel with advances in 3D cell culture is the growing use of human cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Researchers are interested in testing drugs in the most physiologically relevant models possible, so it was only a matter of time before these two approaches converged – providing optimized systems for disease modeling and drug toxicity testing.

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