Mammalian genomes encode genes for more than 30 phospholipase A(2)s (PLA(2)s) or related enzymes, which are subdivided into several subgroups based on their structures, catalytic mechanisms, localizations and evolutionary relationships. More than one third of the PLA(2) enzymes belong to the secreted PLA(2) (sPLA(2)) family, which consists of low-molecular-weight, Ca(2+)-requiring extracellular enzymes, with a His-Asp catalytic dyad. Individual sPLA(2) isoforms exhibit unique tissue and cellular localizations and enzymatic properties, suggesting their distinct pathophysiological roles. Recent studies using transgenic and knockout mice for several sPLA(2) isoforms, in combination with lipidomics approaches, have revealed their distinct contributions to various biological events. Herein, we will describe several examples of sPLA(2)-mediated phospholipid metabolism in vivo, as revealed by integrated analysis of sPLA(2) transgenic/knockout mice and lipid mass spectrometry. Knowledge obtained from this approach greatly contributes to expanding our understanding of the sPLA(2) biology and pathophysiology.
The article is published online in the International Journal of Molecular Sciences and is free to access.