New discovery a Step towards Better Diabetes Treatment
News Jul 10, 2008
Uppsala scientists have presented new findings that shed light on the processes that determine the release of the blood sugar-lowering hormone insulin in the journal Cell Metabolism.
The discovery is based on the development of image analysis methods that make possible the detailed study of events immediately inside the plasma membrane of the insulin-secreting cells.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a universal messenger molecule that controls a number of different functions inside the cell. For example, it plays a role in the release of insulin from the beta cells in the pancreas (see Facts). It is well-known that the production of cAMP explains how certain hormones can amplify insulin secretion.
On the other hand, it has been unclear to what extent cAMP also contributes to the major release of insulin triggered by an increase in blood sugar (glucose).
Anders Tengholms research team at Uppsala University has developed methods that make it possible for the first time to measure both the secretion of insulin and the cAMP concentration in individual beta cells.
The results show that ATP, the energy-rich molecule that is produced when glucose is metabolized, causes an increase in cAMP concentration right at the cell membrane where the release of insulin takes place. This increase varies rhythmically and coincides with similarly regular variations in another stimulant messenger, the calcium ion, resulting in pulsatile secretion of insulin.
Optimal glucose-induced insulin secretion requires that the varying cAMP and calcium signals are coordinated in time. The study sheds new light on the cellular mechanisms that underlie the pulsatile release of insulin in healthy individuals, says Anders Tengholm.
The discovery that the cell metabolism directly stimulates the production of cAMP illustrates a new principle for the regulation of this messenger molecule.
The connection between metabolism and cAMP is not only important for the secretion of insulin; it also plays a role in gene regulation, cell growth, and cell survival. The observations thereby pave the way for understanding of the disturbed beta cell function in type 2 diabetes and for the development of new drugs for the disease.
Retrained Enzyme is Biocatalysis MilestoneNews
TU Graz researchers managed for the first time ever to ‘retrain’ an enzyme to build ring-shaped molecular structures instead of performing its natural task of reducing double bonds. The work was published in Angewandte Chemie, and is relevant for the production of pharmaceuticals and plant protection products.
Laser Pulses and Fluorescence Enable Metabolite ViewingNews
In the search for new sources of drugs, biodegradables and biofuels scientists have come to realize that life itself could be the solution, using natural metabolites produced by bacteria to produce vital compounds like penicillin. Identifying which cells are most useful for this goal has proved a huge challenge, but a new system using fluorescence and lasers has enabled metabolite viewing in real time in algae cells.READ MORE
Comments | 0 ADD COMMENT
12th International Conference on Advancements in Bioinformatics and Drug Discovery
Nov 26 - Nov 27, 2018